Nederland  (Dutch)
Je maintiendrai  (French)
(English: "I will maintain")
Anthem: Wilhelmus  (Dutch)
(English: "William of Nassau")
EU-Netherlands (orthographic projection).png
Location of Netherlands (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Sovereign stateKingdom of the Netherlands
Before independenceSpanish Netherlands
Act of Abjuration26 July 1581
Peace of Münster30 January 1648
Kingdom established16 March 1815
Liberation Day5 May 1945
Kingdom Charter15 December 1954
Caribbean reorganisation10 October 2010
and largest city
52°22′N 4°53′E / 52.367°N 4.883°E / 52.367; 4.883
Government seatThe Hague[a]
Official languagesDutch
Recognised languages
Ethnic groups
75.8% Dutch
7.9% Other European[d]
2.4% Turkish
2.35% Moroccan
2.1% Indonesian
2.1% Surinamese
0.9% Antillean
0.6% Syrian
6.0% Other[3]
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Mark Rutte
LegislatureStates General
House of Representatives
European Parliament
26 seats
• Total
41,865[5][6] km2 (16,164 sq mi) (131st)
• Water (%)
Highest elevation887 m (2,910 ft)
• 25 September 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 17,746,300[8] (67th)
• 2011 census
• Density
423/km2 (1,095.6/sq mi) (16th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.2 trillion [10] (27th)
• Per capita
Increase $68,572[10] (13th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.01 trillion[10] (19th)
• Per capita
Increase $57,836[10] (13th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 28.2[11]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.941[12]
very high · 10th
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Calling code+31, +599[g]
ISO 3166 codeNL
Internet, .bq[h]

The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (listen)), informally Holland,[14][15][16] is a country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean. It is the largest of four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.[17][18][19] The Netherlands consists of twelve provinces; it borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, with a North Sea coastline to the north and west. It shares maritime borders with the United Kingdom, Germany and Belgium in the North Sea.[20] The country's official language is Dutch, with West Frisian as a secondary official language in the province of Friesland.[1] Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised regional languages, while Dutch Sign Language, Sinte Romani and Yiddish are recognised non-territorial languages.[1][2] Dutch, English and Papiamento are official in the Caribbean territories.[1]

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht.[21] Amsterdam is the country's most populous city and the nominal capital.[22] The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court.[23] The Port of Rotterdam is the busiest seaport in Europe.[24] Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest in Europe. The Netherlands is a founding member of the European Union, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD, and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centred in The Hague.[25]

Netherlands literally means "lower countries" in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 m (3.3 ft) above sea level, and nearly 26% falling below sea level.[26] Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 14th century.[27] In the Republican period, which began in 1588, the Netherlands entered a unique era of political, economic, and cultural greatness, ranked among the most powerful and influential in Europe and the world; this period is known as the Dutch Golden Age.[28] During this time, its trading companies, the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, established colonies and trading posts all over the world.[29][30]

With a population of 17.7 million people, all living within a total area of roughly 41,800 km2 (16,100 sq mi)—of which the land area is 33,500 km2 (12,900 sq mi)—the Netherlands is the 16th most densely populated country in the world and the second-most densely populated country in the European Union, with a density of 529 people per square kilometre (1,370 people/sq mi). Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products by value, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture, and inventiveness.[31][32][33]

The Netherlands has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848. The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion, prostitution and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a liberal drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in Civil Law in 1870, though it was not completely removed until a new constitution was approved in 1983. The Netherlands allowed women's suffrage in 1919 and was the first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. Its mixed-market advanced economy had the eleventh-highest per capita income globally.[34] The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indices of press freedom,[35] economic freedom,[36] human development and quality of life, as well as happiness.[37][38]

Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ a b c d e "Welke erkende talen heeft Nederland?" (in Dutch). Rijksoverheid. 11 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Besluit van 24 juni 2021 tot vaststelling van het tijdstip van inwerkingtreding van de Wet erkenning Nederlandse Gebarentaal" (PDF). Staatsblad van Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. 2021. ISSN 0920-2064. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  3. ^ "CBS Statline". Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  4. ^ CBS. "What are the major religions?". Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  5. ^ "Oppervlakte".
  6. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Algemene (19 May 2015). "Waaruit bestaat het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden? –". onderwerpen.
  7. ^ "CIA factbook Netherlands". CIA. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  8. ^ "Bevolkingsteller". Statistics Netherlands (in Dutch). Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  9. ^ "Dutch Census 2011 Analysis and Methodology" (PDF). Statistics Netherlands. 19 November 2014. p. 9. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". International Monetary Fund. April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  11. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  12. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  13. ^ "Wet geldstelsel BES". Dutch government. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
  14. ^ "Dutch government ditches Holland to rebrand as the Netherlands". the Guardian. 4 October 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2022.
  15. ^ "Netherlands vs. Holland". Netherlands Bureau for Tourism and Congresses. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  16. ^ "Holland". WorldAtlas. 13 April 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden" [Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands]. Government of the Netherlands (in Dutch). 17 November 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  18. ^ "What are the different parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands?". Government of the Netherlands. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  19. ^ "Living in the EU". European Union. 12 January 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  20. ^ "Netherlands boundaries in the North Sea". Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  21. ^ "Gemeentegrootte en stedelijkheid" (in Dutch). CBS. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  22. ^ Dutch Wikisource. "Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden" [Constitution for the Kingdom of the Netherlands] (in Dutch). Chapter 2, Article 32. Retrieved 3 July 2013. ... de hoofdstad Amsterdam ...
  23. ^ Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the UN. "General Information". Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  24. ^ "Rotterdam: the largest freight port in the EU", European Commission, 2 April 2020, retrieved 25 November 2021
  25. ^ van Krieken, Peter J.; David McKay (2005). The Hague: Legal Capital of the World. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-90-6704-185-0., specifically, "In the 1990s, during his term as United Nations Secretary General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali started calling The Hague the world's legal capital."
  26. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  27. ^ How it Works: Science and Technology. Marshall Cavendish. 2003. p. 1208. ISBN 978-0-7614-7323-7.
  28. ^ "Netherlands - Dutch civilization in the Golden Age (1609–1713)". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  29. ^ "Dutch Republic | History & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  30. ^ "HISTORY OF THE DUTCH EMPIRE". Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  31. ^ "Netherlands: Agricultural exports top 80 billion Euros". Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  32. ^ (RVO), Netherlands Enterprise Agency (17 July 2015). "Agriculture and food". Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  33. ^ "How the Netherlands Feeds the World". National Geographic Society. September 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  34. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". World Economic Outlook. International Monetary Fund. October 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  35. ^ "2016 World Press Freedom Index – RSF". 1 February 2017. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  36. ^ "Netherlands". Archived from the original on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), Index of Economic Freedom.
  37. ^ Human Development Report 2021 (PDF). New York: United Nations Development Programme. 2021. p. 24. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  38. ^ "World Happiness Report". Retrieved 28 April 2021.

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