Neuroscience

Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1899) of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system (the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system), its functions and disorders.[1][2][3] It is a multidisciplinary science that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, psychology, physics, computer science, chemistry, medicine, statistics, and mathematical modeling to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons, glia and neural circuits.[4][5][6][7][8] The understanding of the biological basis of learning, memory, behavior, perception, and consciousness has been described by Eric Kandel as the "epic challenge" of the biological sciences.[9]

The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the nervous system at different scales. The techniques used by neuroscientists have expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory, motor and cognitive tasks in the brain. [[. ]]

  1. ^ "Neuroscience". Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Key Brain Terms Glossary". Dana Foundation.
  3. ^ "What is neuroscience?". King´s College London. School of Neuroscience.
  4. ^ Kandel, Eric R. (2012). Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Education. pp. I. Overall perspective. ISBN 978-0071390118.
  5. ^ Ayd, Frank J. Jr. (2000). Lexicon of Psychiatry, Neurology and the Neurosciences. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. p. 688. ISBN 978-0781724685.
  6. ^ Shulman, Robert G. (2013). "Neuroscience: A Multidisciplinary, Multilevel Field". Brain Imaging: What it Can (and Cannot) Tell Us About Consciousness. Oxford University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780199838721.
  7. ^ Ogawa, Hiroto; Oka, Kotaro (2013). Methods in Neuroethological Research. Springer. p. v. ISBN 9784431543305.
  8. ^ Tanner, Kimberly D. (2006-01-01). "Issues in Neuroscience Education: Making Connections". CBE: Life Sciences Education. 5 (2): 85. doi:10.1187/cbe.06-04-0156. ISSN 1931-7913. PMC 1618510.
  9. ^ Kandel, Eric R. (2012). Principles of Neural Science, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 5. ISBN 978-0071390118. The last frontier of the biological sciences – their ultimate challenge – is to understand the biological basis of consciousness and the mental processes by which we perceive, act, learn, and remember.

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