New Zealand

New Zealand
Aotearoa (Māori)
Anthems:
"God Defend New Zealand"
(Māori: "Aotearoa")

"God Save the King"[n 1]
A map of the hemisphere centred on New Zealand, using an orthographic projection.
Location of New Zealand, including outlying islands, its territorial claim in the Antarctic, and Tokelau
CapitalWellington
41°18′S 174°47′E / 41.300°S 174.783°E / -41.300; 174.783
Largest cityAuckland
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Religion
(2018)[4]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Charles III
Cindy Kiro
Jacinda Ardern
LegislatureParliament
(House of Representatives)
Independence 
7 May 1856
• Dominion
26 September 1907
25 November 1947
Area
• Total
268,021 km2 (103,483 sq mi) (75th)
• Water (%)
1.6[n 4]
Population
• September 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 5,129,110[6] (121st)
• 2018 census
4,699,755[7]
• Density
19.1/km2 (49.5/sq mi) (167th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $260.122 billion [8] (63rd)
• Per capita
Increase $50,411[8] (30th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $257.211 billion[8] (50th)
• Per capita
Increase $49,847[8] (23rd)
Gini (2019)Negative increase 33.9[9]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.937[10]
very high · 13th
CurrencyNew Zealand dollar ($) (NZD)
Time zoneUTC+12 (NZST[n 5])
• Summer (DST)
UTC+13 (NZDT[n 6])
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy[12]
Driving sideleft
Calling code+64
ISO 3166 codeNZ
Internet TLD.nz

New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and over 700 smaller islands. It is the sixth-largest island country by area, covering 268,021 square kilometres (103,500 sq mi). New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. The country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps, owe much to tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, and its most populous city is Auckland.

The islands of New Zealand were the last large habitable landmass to be settled by humans. Between about 1280 and 1350, Polynesians began to settle in the islands and then developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight and record New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which in its English version declared British sovereignty over the islands. In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire. Subsequently, a series of conflicts between the colonial government and Māori tribes resulted in the alienation and confiscation of large amounts of Māori land. New Zealand became a dominion in 1907; it gained full statutory independence in 1947, and the British monarch remained the head of state. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 5.1 million is of European descent; the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is mainly derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening of culture arising from increased immigration. The official languages are English, Māori, and New Zealand Sign Language, with the local dialect of English being dominant.

A developed country, New Zealand ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, government transparency, and economic freedom. The country was the first to introduce a minimum wage, and the first to give women the right to vote. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy. The service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, and agriculture; international tourism is also a significant source of revenue. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister, currently Jacinda Ardern. King Charles III is the country's monarch and is represented by the governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica.

New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, OECD, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum.

  1. ^ "Protocol for using New Zealand's National Anthems". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
  2. ^ International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights Fifth Periodic Report of the Government of New Zealand (PDF) (Report). New Zealand Government. 21 December 2007. p. 89. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015. In addition to the Māori language, New Zealand Sign Language is also an official language of New Zealand. The New Zealand Sign Language Act 2006 permits the use of NZSL in legal proceedings, facilitates competency standards for its interpretation and guides government departments in its promotion and use. English, the medium for teaching and learning in most schools, is a de facto official language by virtue of its widespread use. For these reasons, these three languages have special mention in the New Zealand Curriculum.
  3. ^ "2018 Census totals by topic – national highlights" (Spreadsheet). Statistics New Zealand. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  4. ^ "2018 Census totals by topic national highlights" (XLSX). Statistics New Zealand. table 26. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  5. ^ "The New Zealand Land Cover Database". New Zealand Land Cover Database 2. Ministry for the Environment. 1 July 2009. Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  6. ^ "Population clock". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 15 May 2021. The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.
  7. ^ "2018 Census population and dwelling counts". Statistics New Zealand. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  9. ^ "Household income and housing-cost statistics: Year ended June 2019". Statistics New Zealand. Table 9. Archived from the original (XLSX) on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  10. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  11. ^ "New Zealand Daylight Time Order 2007 (SR 2007/185)". New Zealand Parliamentary Counsel Office. 6 July 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  12. ^ There is no official all-numeric date format for New Zealand, but government recommendations generally follow Australian date and time notation. See The Govt.nz style guide, New Zealand Government, retrieved 9 July 2021.


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