Northeast Region, Brazil

Northeast Region
Região Nordeste
Northeast Region in Brazil.svg
Coordinates: 12°58′S 38°31′W / 12.967°S 38.517°W / -12.967; -38.517Coordinates: 12°58′S 38°31′W / 12.967°S 38.517°W / -12.967; -38.517
CountryBrazil
Largest cities
Salvador (by city proper) Recife (by metro pop.)
Fortaleza (by pop. density)
States
Area
 • Region1,558,196 km2 (601,623 sq mi)
 • Rank3rd
Population
 • Region57,374,243
 • Rank2nd
 • Density37/km2 (95/sq mi)
  • Rank3rd
 • Urban
71%
GDP
 • Year2014 estimate
 • TotalR$805,099,000,000
(3rd)
 • Per capitaR$14,329.13
(5th)
HDI
 • Year2014
 • Category0.710 – high (5th)
 • Life expectancy69 years (5th)
 • Infant mortality33.2 per 1,000 (1st)
 • Literacy85,2% (5th)
Time zonesUTC−02:00 (FNT)
UTC−03:00 (BRT)
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The Northeast Region of Brazil (Portuguese: Região Nordeste do Brasil; [ʁeʒiˈɐ̃w̃ nɔʁˈdɛstʃi du bɾaˈziw]) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Of Brazil's twenty-six states, it comprises nine: Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia, along with the Fernando de Noronha archipelago (formerly a separate territory, now part of Pernambuco).

Chiefly known as Nordeste ("Northeast") in Brazil, this region was the first to be colonized by the Portuguese and other European peoples, playing a crucial role in the country's history. Nordeste's dialects and rich culture, including its folklore, cuisines, music and literature, became the most easily distinguishable across the country. To this day, Nordeste is known for its history and culture, as well as for its natural environment and its hot weather.[citation needed]

Nordeste stretches from the Atlantic seaboard in the northeast and southeast, northwest and west to the Amazon Basin and south through the Espinhaço highlands in southern Bahia. It encloses the São Francisco River and drainage basin, which were instrumental in the exploration, settlement and economic development of the region. The region lies entirely within the earth's tropical zone and encompasses Caatinga, Atlantic Forest and part of the Cerrado ecoregions. The climate is hot and semi-arid, varying from xeric in Caatinga, to mesic in Cerrado and hydric in the Atlantic Forest.

The Northeast Region represents 18% of Brazilian territory, has a population of 53.6 million people, 28% of the total population of the country, and contributes 13.4% (2011) of Brazil's GDP. Nearly three quarters of the population live in urban areas clustered along the Atlantic coast[citation needed] and about 15 million people live in the hinterland. It is an impoverished region: 43.5% of the population lives in poverty, defined as less than $2/day.[1]

Each of the states' capitals are also its largest cities, and they include Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza and São Luís, all of which are coastal cities with a population above one million.[2]

Nordeste has nine international airports,[Note 1] and the region has the second largest number of passengers (roughly 20%) in Brazil.

  1. ^ Garmany, Jeff (2011). "Situating Fortaleza: Urban space and uneven development in northeastern Brazil". Cities. Elsevier. 28 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2010.08.004.
  2. ^ G1, Do; Paulo, em São (December 4, 2010). "Confira o ranking das maiores regiões metropolitanas". Brasil.


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