Oceania

Oceania
Oceania (orthographic projection).svg
An orthographic projection of Oceania
Area8,525,989 km2 (3,291,903 sq mi) (7th)
Population44,491,724 (2021, 6th)[1][2]
Population density4.19/km2 (10.9/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)$1.630 trillion (2018, 6th)
GDP per capita$41,037 (2017, 2nd)[3]
Religions
DemonymOceanian
Countries
Dependencies
Languages
Time zonesUTC+9 (Papua, Palau) to UTC–6 (Easter Island)
(west to east)
Largest cities
UN M49 code009 – Oceania
001World

Oceania (UK: /ˌsiˈɑːniə, ˌʃi-, -ˈn-/, US: /ˌʃiˈæniə/ (listen), /-ˈɑːn-/)[5] is a geographical region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.[6][7] Spanning the Eastern and Western hemispheres, Oceania is estimated to have a land area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and a population of around 44.5 million as of 2021. When compared with the continents, the region of Oceania is the smallest in land area and the second least populated after Antarctica. Its major population centres are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Auckland, Adelaide, and Honolulu.

Oceania has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial markets of Australia, French Polynesia, Hawaiʻi, New Caledonia, and New Zealand, which rank high in quality of life and Human Development Index,[8][9] to the much less developed economies of Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Western New Guinea,[10] while also including medium-sized economies of Pacific islands such as Fiji, Palau, and Tonga.[11] The largest and most populous country in Oceania is Australia, and the largest city is Sydney.[12] Puncak Jaya in Highland Papua, Indonesia is the highest peak in Oceania at 4,884 m (16,024 ft).[13]

The first settlers of Australia, New Guinea, and the large islands just to the east arrived more than 60,000 years ago.[14] Oceania was first explored by Europeans from the 16th century onward. Portuguese explorers, between 1512 and 1526, reached the Tanimbar Islands, some of the Caroline Islands and west Papua New Guinea. On his first voyage in the 18th century, James Cook, who later arrived at the highly developed Hawaiʻian Islands, went to Tahiti and followed the east coast of Australia for the first time.[15]

The arrival of European settlers in subsequent centuries resulted in a significant alteration in the social and political landscape of Oceania. The Pacific theatre saw major action during the Second World War, mainly between Allied powers the United States, Philippines (a US Commonwealth at the time) and Australia, and Axis power Japan. The rock art of Aboriginal Australians is the longest continuously practiced artistic tradition in the world.[16] Most Oceanian countries are multi-party representative parliamentary democracies, with tourism being a large source of income for the Pacific Islands nations.[17]

  1. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference unstats was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ "Oceania: Population, Characteristics, Economy And Religions". CRGSoft. 17 January 2022. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference pronun was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference aging was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ "The Four Sub-regions Of Oceania". WorldAtlas. 26 December 2017. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference worlda was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference herita was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ Cite error: The named reference imforg was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference undporg was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference dfatgov was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference modern283 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ "Aboriginal Australians". National Geographic. 8 February 2019. Archived from the original on 24 August 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference foundi was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference oceanart was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference newpol162 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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