Portuguese Republic
República Portuguesa (Portuguese)
Esta é a ditosa Pátria minha amada
"This is my blissful beloved homeland"
A Portuguesa
"The Portuguese"
EU-Portugal (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Portugal with islands circled.svg
Location of Portugal (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

and largest city
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767°N 9.150°W / 38.767; -9.150
Official languagesPortuguese
Recognised regional languagesMirandese[note 1]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic[5]
• President
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
António Costa
LegislatureAssembly of the Republic
24 June 1128
• Kingdom
25 July 1139
5 October 1143
1 December 1640
23 September 1822
• Republic
5 October 1910
25 April 1974
25 April 1976[note 3]
1 January 1986
• Total
92,212 km2 (35,603 sq mi)[6] (109th)
• Water (%)
1.2 (2015)[7]
• 2021 estimate
Neutral decrease 10,352,042[8] (89th)
• 2021 census
Neutral decrease 10,344,802[9]
• Density
112.2[10]/km2 (290.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $419.7 billion[11] (52nd)
• Per capita
Increase $40,805[11] (42nd)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $251.9 billion[11] (51st)
• Per capita
Increase $24,495[11] (53rd)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 31.2[12]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.866[13]
very high · 38th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (WET)
UTC−1 (Atlantic/Azores)
• Summer (DST)
UTC (Atlantic/Azores)
Note: Continental Portugal and Madeira use WET/WEST, the Azores are 1 hour behind.
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+351
ISO 3166 codePT
Internet TLD.pt
  1. ^ Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro),[1] awarding it an official right-of-use.[2] Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
  2. ^ By country of birth
  3. ^ Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976 with several subsequent minor revisions, between 1982 and 2005.

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 4] is a country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. It features the westernmost point in continental Europe, and its Iberian portion is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, the sole country to have a land border with Portugal. Its two archipelagos form two autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Lisbon is the capital and largest city by population.

Portugal is the oldest continuously existing nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times. It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples who had contact with Phoenicians and Ancient Greek traders, it was ruled by the Romans, followed by the invasions of the Suebi and Visigothic Germanic peoples, in turn followed by the Moors who eventually were expelled. Portugal as a county was established during the early Christian Reconquista. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede (1128). The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique (1139), and independence from León was recognized by the Treaty of Zamora (1143).[14]

In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global maritime and commercial empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military powers.[15] During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration with the discovery of what would become Brazil (1500). During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castile, and the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. By the 18th century however, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil (1822) led to a marked decay of Portugal's prior opulence.[16] This was followed by the civil war between liberal constitutionalists and conservative absolutists over royal succession, which lasted from 1828 to 1834.

The 1910 revolution deposed Portugal's centuries-old monarchy, and established the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic, later being superseded by the Estado Novo authoritarian regime. Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution (1974), ending the Portuguese Colonial War. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories. The handover of Macau to China (1999) marked the end of one of the longest-lived colonial empires in history.

Portugal has left a profound cultural, architectural and linguistic influence across the globe, with a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers around the world. It is a developed country with an advanced economy and high living standards.[17][18][19] Additionally, it ranks highly in peacefulness, democracy,[20] press freedom, stability, social progress, prosperity and English proficiency. A member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Schengen Area and the Council of Europe (CoE), Portugal was also one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

  1. ^ a b "Reconhecimento oficial de direitos linguísticos da comunidade mirandesa (Official recognition of linguistic rights of the Mirandese community)". Centro de Linguística da Universidade de Lisboa (UdL). Archived from the original on 18 March 2002. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  2. ^ a b The Euromosaic study, Mirandese in Portugal, europa.eu – European Commission website. Retrieved January 2007. Link updated December 2015
  3. ^ "661 mil imigrantes, mais 71 mil do que antes da pandemia" (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  4. ^ Census - Final results. Portugal - 2011 — PDF, page 530
  5. ^ Constitution of Portugal, Preamble:
  6. ^ (in Portuguese)"Superfície Que municípios têm maior e menor área?". Pordata. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  7. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  8. ^ "Estimativas de População Residente, Portugal, NUTS I, II e III e Municípios. Exercício Ad hoc 2020 e 2021". ine.pt. INE. Retrieved 17 June 2022.
  9. ^ "Censos 2021 - Divulgação dos Resultados Provisórios". Statistics Portugal - Web Portal. 16 December 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  10. ^ "PORDATA - Population density, according to Census".
  11. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects – Portugal". International Monetary Fund. 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  12. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  13. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  14. ^ Brian Jenkins, Spyros A. Sofos, Nation and identity in contemporary Europe, p. 145, Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-12313-5
  15. ^ Melvin Eugene Page, Penny M. Sonnenburg, p. 481
  16. ^ "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  17. ^ "World Economic Outlook April 2014 - Recovery Strengthens, Remains Uneven" (PDF). imf.org. 8 April 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  18. ^ "SOCIAL PROGRESS INDEX 2015 : EXECUTIVE SUMMARY" (PDF). 2.deloitte.com. Retrieved 2 August 2017.
  19. ^ "Quality of Life Index by Country 2020 Mid-Year". www.numbeo.com.
  20. ^ "Democracy Reports | V-Dem". www.v-dem.net. Archived from the original on 21 June 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.

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