Python (programming language)

Python
Python-logo-notext.svg
ParadigmMulti-paradigm: object-oriented,[1] procedural (imperative), functional, structured, reflective
Designed byGuido van Rossum
DeveloperPython Software Foundation
First appeared20 February 1991 (1991-02-20)[2]
Stable release
3.11.0[3] Edit this on Wikidata / 24 October 2022 (24 October 2022)
Preview release
3.12.0a2[4] Edit this on Wikidata / 15 November 2022 (15 November 2022)
Typing disciplineDuck, dynamic, strong typing;[5] gradual (since 3.5, but ignored in CPython)[6]
OSWindows, macOS, Linux/UNIX, Android[7][8] and more[9]
LicensePython Software Foundation License
Filename extensions.py, .pyi, .pyc, .pyd, .pyw, .pyz (since 3.5),[10] .pyo (prior to 3.5)[11]
Websitepython.org
Major implementations
CPython, PyPy, Stackless Python, MicroPython, CircuitPython, IronPython, Jython
Dialects
Cython, RPython, Starlark[12]
Influenced by
ABC,[13] Ada,[14] ALGOL 68,[15] APL,[16] C,[17] C++,[18] CLU,[19] Dylan,[20] Haskell,[21][16] Icon,[22] Lisp,[23] Modula-3,[15][18] Perl,[24] Standard ML[16]
Influenced
Apache Groovy, Boo, Cobra, CoffeeScript,[25] D, F#, Genie,[26] Go, JavaScript,[27][28] Julia,[29] Nim, Ring,[30] Ruby,[31] Swift[32]

Python is a high-level, general-purpose programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability with the use of significant indentation.[33]

Python is dynamically-typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including structured (particularly procedural), object-oriented and functional programming. It is often described as a "batteries included" language due to its comprehensive standard library.[34][35]

Guido van Rossum began working on Python in the late 1980s as a successor to the ABC programming language and first released it in 1991 as Python 0.9.0.[36] Python 2.0 was released in 2000 and introduced new features such as list comprehensions, cycle-detecting garbage collection, reference counting, and Unicode support. Python 3.0, released in 2008, was a major revision that is not completely backward-compatible with earlier versions. Python 2 was discontinued with version 2.7.18 in 2020.[37]

Python consistently ranks as one of the most popular programming languages.[38][39][40][41]

  1. ^ "General Python FAQ — Python 3.9.2 documentation". docs.python.org. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  2. ^ "Python 0.9.1 part 01/21". alt.sources archives. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  3. ^ "Python 3.11 Released With Big Performance Improvements, Task Groups For Async I/O"; retrieved: 25 October 2022; publication date: 24 October 2022; house publication: Phoronix.
  4. ^ "Python 3.12.0 alpha 2 released". 15 November 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  5. ^ "Why is Python a dynamic language and also a strongly typed language – Python Wiki". wiki.python.org. Archived from the original on 14 March 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  6. ^ "PEP 483 – The Theory of Type Hints". Python.org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  7. ^ "test — Regression tests package for Python — Python 3.7.13 documentation". docs.python.org. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  8. ^ "platform — Access to underlying platform's identifying data — Python 3.10.4 documentation". docs.python.org. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  9. ^ "Download Python". Python.org. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  10. ^ Holth, Moore (30 March 2014). "PEP 0441 – Improving Python ZIP Application Support". Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  11. ^ File extension .pyo was removed in Python 3.5. See PEP 0488 Archived 1 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Starlark Language". Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference faq-created was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ "Ada 83 Reference Manual (raise statement)". Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  15. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference 98-interview was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ a b c "itertools — Functions creating iterators for efficient looping — Python 3.7.1 documentation". docs.python.org. Archived from the original on 14 June 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2016. This module implements a number of iterator building blocks inspired by constructs from APL, Haskell, and SML.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoNT-1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference classmix was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference effbot-call-by-object was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoNT-2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoNT-3 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoNT-4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoNT-6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ "re — Regular expression operations — Python 3.10.6 documentation". docs.python.org. Retrieved 6 September 2022. This module provides regular expression matching operations similar to those found in Perl.
  25. ^ "CoffeeScript". coffeescript.org. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  26. ^ "The Genie Programming Language Tutorial". Archived from the original on 1 June 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  27. ^ "Perl and Python influences in JavaScript". www.2ality.com. 24 February 2013. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  28. ^ Rauschmayer, Axel. "Chapter 3: The Nature of JavaScript; Influences". O'Reilly, Speaking JavaScript. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  29. ^ Cite error: The named reference Julia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ Ring Team (4 December 2017). "Ring and other languages". ring-lang.net. ring-lang. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  31. ^ Cite error: The named reference bini was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  32. ^ Lattner, Chris (3 June 2014). "Chris Lattner's Homepage". Chris Lattner. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 3 June 2014. The Swift language is the product of tireless effort from a team of language experts, documentation gurus, compiler optimization ninjas, and an incredibly important internal dogfooding group who provided feedback to help refine and battle-test ideas. Of course, it also greatly benefited from the experiences hard-won by many other languages in the field, drawing ideas from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU, and far too many others to list.
  33. ^ Cite error: The named reference AutoNT-7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  34. ^ Cite error: The named reference About was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  35. ^ "PEP 206 – Python Advanced Library". Python.org. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  36. ^ Rossum, Guido Van (20 January 2009). "The History of Python: A Brief Timeline of Python". The History of Python. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  37. ^ Peterson, Benjamin (20 April 2020). "Python Insider: Python 2.7.18, the last release of Python 2". Python Insider. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  38. ^ "Stack Overflow Developer Survey 2022". Stack Overflow. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  39. ^ "The State of Developer Ecosystem in 2020 Infographic". JetBrains: Developer Tools for Professionals and Teams. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  40. ^ "index | TIOBE – The Software Quality Company". www.tiobe.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2021. Python has won the TIOBE programming language of the year award! This is for the fourth time in the history, which is a record! The title is awarded to the programming language that has gained most popularity in one year.
  41. ^ "PYPL PopularitY of Programming Language index". pypl.github.io. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2021.

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