|Awarded for||post graduate study at the University of Oxford|
|Sponsored by||Rhodes Trust|
The Rhodes Scholarship is an international postgraduate award for students to study at the University of Oxford. Established in 1902, it is the oldest graduate scholarship in the world. It is considered among the world's most prestigious international scholarship programs. Its founder, Cecil John Rhodes, wanted to promote unity among English-speaking nations and instill a sense of civic-minded leadership and moral fortitude in future leaders, irrespective of their chosen career paths. Initially restricted to male applicants from countries that are today within the Commonwealth, Germany and the United States, the scholarship is now open to applicants from all backgrounds and genders around the world. Since its creation, controversy has surrounded its initial exclusion of women, its historical failure to select black Africans, and Cecil Rhodes's own standing as a British imperialist.
Rhodes Scholars have achieved distinction as politicians, academics, scientists and doctors, authors, entrepreneurs, and Nobel Prize winners. Many scholars have become heads of state or heads of government, including President of the United States Bill Clinton, President of Pakistan Wasim Sajjad, Prime Minister of Jamaica Norman Manley, Prime Minister of Malta Dom Mintoff, and Prime Ministers of Australia Tony Abbott, Bob Hawke, and Malcolm Turnbull. Other notable Rhodes Scholars include Nobel Prize-winning scientist and discoverer of penicillin Howard Florey, Justice of the Constitutional Court of South Africa Edwin Cameron, Nobel Prize-winning economist Michael Spence, Australian High Court Justice James Edelman, journalist and American television host Rachel Maddow, author Naomi Wolf, musician Kris Kristofferson, U.S. Secretary of Transportation Pete Buttigieg and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Ronan Farrow.