Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro
Município do Rio de Janeiro
Coat of arms of Rio de Janeiro
Cidade Maravilhosa (Marvellous City) Princesa Maravilhosa (Marvellous Princess) Cidade dos Brasileiros (City of Brazilians)
Location in the state of Rio de Janeiro
Location in the state of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro is located in Brazil
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Location within Brazil
Rio de Janeiro is located in South America
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Location within South America
Coordinates: 22°54′41″S 43°12′21″W / 22.911366°S 43.205916°W / -22.911366; -43.205916Coordinates: 22°54′41″S 43°12′21″W / 22.911366°S 43.205916°W / -22.911366; -43.205916
StateRio de Janeiro
Historic countriesKingdom of Portugal
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Empire of Brazil
Settled1555 (1555)
FoundedMarch 1, 1565 (1565-03-01)[1]
Named forSaint Sebastian
 • TypeMayor-council
 • BodyMunicipal Chamber of Rio de Janeiro
 • MayorEduardo Paes (PSD)
 • Vice MayorNilton Caldeira (PL)
 • Municipality1,221 km2 (486.5 sq mi)
 • Metro
4,539.8 km2 (1,759.6 sq mi)
2 m (7 ft)
Highest elevation
1,020 m (3,349 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 • Municipality6,747,815
 • Rank2nd
 • Urban
 • Metro
12,280,702 (2nd)
 • Metro density2,705.1/km2 (7,006/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−3 (BRT)
Postal Code
20000-001 to 23799-999
Area code21
HDI (2010)0.799 – high[3]
Nominal 2018US$ 93.9 billion (2nd)[4]
Per CapitaUS$14,046 (2nd)
Official nameRio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea
Designated2012 (36th session)
Reference no.1100

Rio de Janeiro (UK: /ˈr də əˈnɪər/ REE-oh də jə-NEER-oh, US: /ˈr d ʒəˈnɛər/ REE-oh dee zhə-NAIR-oh, Portuguese: [ˈʁi.u d(ʒi) ʒɐˈne(j)ɾu] (listen);[a] literally 'River of January'), or simply Rio,[6] is the capital of the state of the same name, Brazil's third-most populous state, and the second-most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo. Listed by the GaWC as a beta global city, Rio de Janeiro is the sixth-most populous city in the Americas. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.[7]

Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court moved to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal. She subsequently, under the leadership of her son the prince regent João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves. Rio remained as the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the Brazilian War of Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonizing country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, and then the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília.

Rio de Janeiro has the second-largest municipal GDP in the country,[8] and 30th-largest in the world in 2008.[9] This is estimated at R$343 billion (nearly US$201 billion). It is headquarters to Brazilian oil, mining, and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations, Petrobras and Vale, and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17 percent of national scientific output according to 2005 data.[10] Despite the high perception of crime, the city actually has a lower incidence of crime than most state capitals in Brazil.[11]

Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, carnival, samba, bossa nova, and balneario beaches[12] such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana, Ipanema, and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World; Sugarloaf Mountain with its cable car; the Sambódromo (Sambadrome), a permanent grandstand-lined parade avenue which is used during Carnival; and Maracanã Stadium, one of the world's largest football stadiums. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to ever host the events, and the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city.[13] The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the XV Pan American Games.

  1. ^ "Rio de Janeiro Info ('History')". Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  2. ^ "2019 population estimates. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE)". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. "Gross Domestic Product of Municipalities". Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  5. ^ Larousse Concise Dictionary: Portuguese-English, 2008, p. 339.
  6. ^ "Rio de Janeiro: travel guide". Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  7. ^ "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea". UNESCO. 1 July 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  8. ^ "Posição ocupada pelos 100 maiores municípios em relação ao Produto Interno Bruto" (PDF). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 16 December 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 16 December 2008.
  9. ^ "The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2005". City Mayors Statistics. 11 March 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
  10. ^ "Assessoria de Comunicação e Imprensa". Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp). 17 June 2005. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2008.
  11. ^ "Veja o ranking das capitais mais violentas do Brasil". O Estado de Sao Paulo. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  12. ^ "Rio de Janeiro's Beach Culture" Tayfun King, Fast Track, BBC World News (11 September 2009)
  13. ^ "BBC Sport, Rio to stage 2016 Olympic Games". BBC News. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009.

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