San Francisco Bay Area

San Francisco Bay Area
Golden Gate Bridge at Purple sunset (cropped).jpg
San Francisco China Town MC.jpg
Overwhelming Height (18029596268).jpg
Downtown San Jose (30001966530).jpg
Fall in Napa Valley.jpg
Sather Tower and Campanile - Michael Pihulic 10.jpg
Stanford Oval May 2011 panorama.jpg
Clockwise from top: The Golden Gate Bridge, Muir Woods National Monument, Napa Valley vineyards, Sather Tower at UC Berkeley with the Bay in the background, the Stanford University Oval, the Palo Alto Baylands Nature Preserve, downtown San Jose's skyline, and San Francisco Chinatown with the Bay Bridge in the background
California Bay Area county map.svg
Location of the Bay Area within California.
  The nine-county Bay Area.
  Additional counties in the larger fourteen-county combined statistical area.
CountryUnited States
Core citiesOakland
San Francisco
San Jose
Other municipalities
 • Nine-county6,966 sq mi (18,040 km2)
 • San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area10,191 sq mi (26,390 km2)
Highest elevation4,360 ft (1,330 m)
Lowest elevation−13 ft (−4 m)
 • Nine-county
7.76 million[4]
 • Nine-county density1,115/sq mi (431/km2)
 • San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area
9.71 million[4]
 • San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area density953/sq mi (368/km2)
Time zoneUTC−08:00 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−07:00 (PDT)
Area codes408/669, 415/628, 510/341, 650, 707, 925[5]

The San Francisco Bay Area, also known as the Bay Area, is a populous metropolitan region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuaries in Northern California. The Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano, Sonoma, and San Francisco. Other definitions may be either smaller or larger, and may include neighboring counties that do not border the bay such as Santa Cruz and San Benito (more often included in the Central Coast regions); or San Joaquin, Merced, and Stanislaus (more often included in the Central Valley).[6] The core cities of the Bay Area are Oakland, San Francisco, and San Jose.

Home to approximately 7.76 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns, airports, and associated regional, state, and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The Bay Area is known for its natural beauty, progressive politics, prominent universities, technology companies, and affluence. The larger federal classification, the combined statistical area of the region which includes 14 counties,[6] is the second-largest in California (after the Greater Los Angeles area), the fifth-largest in the United States, and the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 9.67 million people.[7] The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: roughly three-fifths of the region's residents are Hispanic, Asian, African American, or Pacific Islander (with the other two-fifths being non-Hispanic White American), all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region.

The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 8000–10,000 BC from shell mounds in the Coyote Hills). In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolá entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was briefly controlled by the Mexican government until the United States seized the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento. A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region was quickly rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with the San Francisco Port of Embarkation, of which Fort Mason was one of 14 installations and location of the headquarters, acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations before permanently relocating to Manhattan, and in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco re-established peaceful relations between Japan and the Allied Powers. Since then, the Bay Area has experienced numerous political, cultural, and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw large growth in the financial and technology industries, creating an economy with a gross domestic product of over $700 billion, and home to the third-highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States (as of 2018).[8][9] A protracted Covid-accelerated exodus of commerce from San Francisco[10][11] and professional business services and sports teams and from Oakland,[12] with the Hoover Institution in California, in addition to various media organizations, warning of a severe long-term economic doom spiral impending for the former,[13] Theories advanced for an protracted regional decline range from narcotics and other drugs, crime, and homelessness, to the West Coast's and particularly the Bay Area's challenge to remain relevant as a major commercial and financial center given its relative geographic isolation from other North American commercial centers in a era of increasingly ubiquitous e-commerce;[14][15] also mentioned is the Bay Area's progressively decreasing lead in the geographically dispersing high technology field.[16] The region is still the home to four of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization, and San Francisco houses the headquarters of numerous companies inside and outside of technology, including Wells Fargo, Clorox, Salesforce, Uber, Airbnb, Twitter, Levi's, Gap, Dropbox, and Lyft.[17][18][19]

Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically sensitive habitats, providing important ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers and supporting a number of endangered species. In addition, the Bay Area is known for its stands of coast redwoods, many of which are protected in state and county parks. The region is additionally known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is particularly exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes. The climate is temperate and conducive to outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking, running, and cycling. The Bay Area is host to six professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music, theater, and the arts. It is also host to higher education institutions, including research universities such as Stanford University and the University of California, Berkeley. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area involves numerous local and regional jurisdictions, often with broad and overlapping responsibilities.

  1. ^ "Square Mileage by County". California States Association of Counties. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  2. ^ Hinrichs, Scott (September 28, 2006). "Mt. Hamilton Lick Observatory". Archived from the original on August 20, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  3. ^ Kurhi, Eric (December 11, 2014). "San Jose: Overwhelmed pumps led to Alviso flooding; residents say it's a 'wake-up call'". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  4. ^ a b "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
  5. ^ "Area Code Map for Northern California/Bay Area". White Pages. Archived from the original on September 24, 2017. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference OMB-18-04 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Demographia (April 2016). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (12th ed.). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 7, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
  8. ^ "Home". Bay Area Council. Archived from the original on August 31, 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  9. ^ "2019 Sacramento Economic Forecast" (PDF). Bay Area Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 26, 2019.
  10. ^ San Francisco Chronicle Editorial Board (August 21, 2022). "Downtown San Francisco is dying. This bill could help save it". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  11. ^ Roland Li (August 13, 2022). "New York is roaring back from the worst of the pandemic. Why isn't San Francisco?". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  12. ^ Robert Zeglinski (April 20, 2023). "Oakland unbelievably lost all three of its pro sports teams in just 5 years". USA TODAY SPORTS. Retrieved April 20, 2023.
  13. ^ "...San Francisco's "Doom Loop,"..." Hoover Institution. April 6, 2023. Retrieved April 7, 2023.
  14. ^ "California shows perils of imported oil habit". Herald-Tribune. Retrieved May 14, 2023. One of the most significant factors is..the isolation of our market.
  15. ^ Tessa Mclean (November 30, 2022). "The Container Store near Union Square plans to close". Hearst Corporation. Retrieved December 17, 2022. The Union Square area of downtown has been struggling with an increase in crime in recent years, coupled with losing several big retailers since 2020, including Crate & Barrel, DSW and Gap.
  16. ^ Cara Eisenpress (April 28, 2023). "New York is closer than ever to beating the Bay Area on tech". Crain Communications. Retrieved May 29, 2023.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference SanFranExodus2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ "Companies ranked by Market Cap -". Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  19. ^ Mclean, Tessa (November 30, 2022). "The Container Store near Union Square plans to close". Hearst Corporation. Retrieved November 30, 2022. The Union Square area of downtown has been struggling with an increase in crime in recent years, coupled with losing several big retailers since 2020, including Crate & Barrel, DSW and Gap.

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