Spain

Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4

Kingdom of Spain
Reino de España
4 other names[a]
Motto: Plus ultra  (Latin)
(English: "Further Beyond")
Anthem: Marcha Real  (Spanish)[1]
(English: "Royal March")
EU-Spain (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Spain.svg
Location of Spain (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Madrid
40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700
Official languageSpanish[b]
Nationality (2020)
Religion
(2022)[4]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Felipe VI
Pedro Sánchez
LegislatureCortes Generales
Senate
Congress of Deputies
Formation
• De facto
20 January 1479
• De jure
9 June 1715
19 March 1812
29 December 1978
1 January 1986
Area
• Total
505,990[5] km2 (195,360 sq mi) (51st)
• Water (%)
0.89 (2015)[6]
Population
• 2020 census
Neutral increase 47,450,795[7][8][d] (30th)
• Density
94/km2 (243.5/sq mi) (120th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.20 trillion[9] (16th)
• Per capita
Increase $46,413[9] (38th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.435 trillion[9] (15th)
• Per capita
Increase $30,157[9] (38th)
Gini (2021)Negative increase 33.0[10]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.905[11]
very high · 27th
CurrencyEuro[e] () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC⁠±0 to +1 (WET and CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 to +2 (WEST and CEST)
Note: most of Spain observes CET/CEST, except the Canary Islands which observe WET/WEST.
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+34
ISO 3166 codeES
Internet TLD.es[f]

Spain (Spanish: España, [esˈpaɲa] (listen)), or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España),[g] is a country in southwestern Europe with parts of territory in the Atlantic Ocean and across the Mediterranean Sea.[12][h] The largest part of Spain is situated on the Iberian Peninsula; its territory also includes the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla in Africa. The country's mainland is bordered to the south by Gibraltar; to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea; to the north by France, Andorra and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean. With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the second-largest country in the European Union (EU) and, with a population exceeding 47.4 million, the fourth-most populous EU member state. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid; other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Zaragoza, Málaga, Murcia, Palma de Mallorca, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Bilbao.

Anatomically modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 42,000 years ago.[13] Pre-Roman peoples dwelled in the territory, in addition to the development of coastal trading colonies by Phoenicians and Ancient Greeks and the brief Carthaginian rule over the Mediterranean coastline. The Roman conquest and colonization of the peninsula (Hispania) ensued, bringing a Roman acculturation of the population. Hispania remained under Roman rule until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth century, which ushered in the migration of Germanic peoples and the Alans into the peninsula. Eventually, the Visigoths emerged as the dominant power in the peninsula by the fifth century. In the early eighth century, most of the peninsula was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate and during early Islamic rule, Al-Andalus became the dominant peninsular power, centered in Córdoba. Several Christian kingdoms emerged in Northern Iberia, chief among them León, Castile, Aragón, Portugal, and Navarre and over the next seven centuries, an intermittent southward expansion of these kingdoms, known as Reconquista, culminated with the Christian seizure of the Emirate of Granada in 1492. Jews and Muslims were forced to choose between conversion to Catholicism or expulsion and the Morisco converts were eventually expelled. The dynastic union of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon was followed by the annexation of Navarre and the 1580 incorporation of Portugal (which ended in 1640). In the wake of the Spanish colonization of the Americas after 1492, the Crown came to hold a large overseas empire, which underpinned the emergence of a global trading system primarily fuelled by the precious metals extracted in the New World.[14] Centralisation of the administration and further State-building in mainland Spain ensued in the 18th and 19th centuries, during which the Crown saw the loss of the bulk of its American colonies a few years after of the Peninsular War. The country veered between different political regimes; monarchy and republic, and following a 1936–39 devastating civil war, a fascist dictatorship that lasted until 1975.

Spanish art, music, literature and cuisine have been influential worldwide, particularly in Western Europe and the Americas. As a reflection of its large cultural wealth, Spain has the world's fourth-largest number of World Heritage Sites (49) and is the world's second-most visited country. Its cultural influence extends over 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language.[15]

Spain is a developed country, a secular parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy,[16] with King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a high-income country and an advanced economy,[17] with the world's fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixteenth-largest by PPP. Spain has one of the longest life expectancies in the world at 83.5 years in 2019.[18] It ranks particularly high in healthcare quality,[19] with its healthcare system considered to be one of the most efficient worldwide.[20] It is a world leader in organ transplants and organ donation.[21][22] Spain is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States (OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the World Trade Organization (WTO) and many other international organisations.


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  1. ^ Presidency of the Government (11 October 1997). "Real Decreto 1560/1997, de 10 de octubre, por el que se regula el Himno Nacional" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado núm. 244 (in Spanish). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015.
  2. ^ "The Spanish Constitution". Lamoncloa.gob.es. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  3. ^ "Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Población (españoles/extranjeros) por País de Nacimiento, sexo y año". ine.es. Instituto Nacional de Estadística.
  4. ^ CIS."Barómetro de Enero de 2022", 3,777 respondents. The question was "¿Cómo se define Ud. en materia religiosa: católico/a practicante, católico/a no practicante, creyente de otra religión, agnóstico/a, indiferente o no creyente, o ateo/a?".
  5. ^ "Anuario estadístico de España 2008. 1ª parte: entorno físico y medio ambiente" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  6. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. ^ "INEbase / Demografía y población /Padrón. Población por municipios /Estadística del Padrón continuo. Últimos datos datos". ine.es. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Population Figures at 01 January 2019. Migrations Statistics. Year 2019" (PDF) (in Spanish). National Statistics Institute (INE). June 2020. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund.
  10. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  12. ^ "Spain | Facts, Culture, History, & Points of Interest". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  13. ^ Katina T. Lillios (5 December 2019). The Archaeology of the Iberian Peninsula: From the Paleolithic to the Bronze Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-107-11334-3.
  14. ^ Flynn, Dennis O.; Giráldez Source, Arturo (1995). "Born with a 'Silver Spoon': The Origin of World Trade in 1571". Journal of World History. 6 (2): 202. JSTOR 20078638.
  15. ^ "572 millones de personas hablan español, cinco millones más que hace un año, y aumentarán a 754 millones a mediados de siglo". www.cervantes.es.
  16. ^ Spanish Constitution 1978, Article 1.
  17. ^ Whitehouse, Mark (6 November 2010). "Number of the Week: $10.2 Trillion in Global Borrowing". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017.
  18. ^ "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Spain". World Bank. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  19. ^ Thais Guerrero Padrón; María Isabel Ribes Moreno (20 November 2020). Social Security Law in Spain. Wolters Kluwer. p. 165. ISBN 978-94-035-2611-9.
  20. ^ "Bloomberg - Healthcare efficiency scores in 56 countries". Bloomberg.com. 19 September 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  21. ^ "How Spain became the world leader in organ transplants". www.thelocal.es. 15 September 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  22. ^ "Global leader Spain carries out its 100,000th transplant". www.thelocal.es. 25 February 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2019.

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