Springfield, Massachusetts

Springfield, Massachusetts
Coat of arms of Springfield, Massachusetts
The City of Firsts; The City of Progress;[1][2][3] The City of Homes; A City in the Forest;[4] Hoop City;[5][6]
The Western Gateway to New England[7][8]
Coordinates: 42°06′05″N 72°35′25″W / 42.10139°N 72.59028°W / 42.10139; -72.59028
CountryUnited States
RegionNew England
Historic countriesKingdom of England
Kingdom of Great Britain
Historic colonies
Settled (town)May 14, 1636 (1636-05-14)
Incorporated (city)May 25, 1852 (1852-05-25)
Founded byWilliam Pynchon
Named forSpringfield, Essex
 • TypeMayor-council city
 • MayorDomenic Sarno (D)
 • City33.08 sq mi (85.68 km2)
 • Land31.87 sq mi (82.54 km2)
 • Water1.21 sq mi (3.14 km2)
70 ft (21 m)
 • City155,929
 • Rank168th, U.S. as of 2020 incorporated places estimate
 • Density4,892.66/sq mi (1,889.08/km2)
 • Urban
442,145 (US: 92nd)
 • Urban density2,191.4/sq mi (846.1/km2)
 • Metro699,162 (US: 87th)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP Codes
01101, 01103–01105, 01107–01109, 01118–01119, 01128–01129, 01151
Area code413
FIPS code25-67000
GNIS feature ID0609092
GDPUS$30 billion[13]

Springfield is the most populous city in and the seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States.[14] Springfield sits on the eastern bank of the Connecticut River near its confluence with three rivers: the western Westfield River, the eastern Chicopee River, and the eastern Mill River. At the 2020 census, the city's population was 155,929, making it the 3rd most populous city in the U.S. state of Massachusetts and the 4th most populous city in New England after Boston, Worcester, and Providence. Metropolitan Springfield, as one of two metropolitan areas[b] in Massachusetts (the other being Greater Boston), had a population of 699,162 in 2020.[10]

Springfield was founded in 1636, the first Springfield in the New World. In the late 1700s, during the American Revolution, Springfield was designated by George Washington as the site of the Springfield Armory because of its central location. Subsequently it was the site of Shays' Rebellion. The city would also play a pivotal role in the Civil War, as a stop on the Underground Railroad and home of abolitionist John Brown, widely known for his raid on Harpers Ferry,[15] and for the Armory's manufacture of the famed "Springfield rifles" used ubiquitously by Union troops. Closing during the Lyndon B. Johnson administration, today the national park site features the largest collection of historic American firearms in the world.[16]

Today the city is the largest in western New England, and the urban, economic, and media capital of Massachusetts' section of the Connecticut River Valley, colloquially known as the Pioneer Valley. Springfield has several nicknames—"The City of Firsts", due to the many innovations developed there, such as the first American dictionary, the first American gas-powered automobile, and the first machining lathe for interchangeable parts; "The City of Homes", due to its Victorian residential architecture; and "Hoop City", as basketball was invented in Springfield in 1891 by Canadian James Naismith.

Hartford, the capital of Connecticut, lies 24 miles (39 km) south of Springfield, on the western bank of the Connecticut River. The Hartford–Springfield region is known as the Knowledge Corridor because it hosts over 160,000 university students and over 32 universities and liberal arts colleges—the second-highest concentration of higher-learning institutions in the United States.[17] The city of Springfield itself is home to Springfield College, Western New England University, American International College, and Springfield Technical Community College, among other higher educational institutions.

  1. ^ "The City of Progress New City Library, Merrick Park, State Street Springfield, MA". Cardcow.com. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  2. ^ "The City Of Progress, Winchester Square Springfield, MA". Cardcow.com. Archived from the original on October 7, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  3. ^ Denis Larionov & Alexander Zhulin. "Progressive Springfield, Massachusetts, by George Storrs Graves". Ebooksread.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
  4. ^ "Picturesque Springfield and West Springfield, Massachusetts". Internet Archive. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
  5. ^ "Progressive Springfield, Massachusetts". Internet Archive. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
  6. ^ "Picturesque Springfield and West Springfield, Massachusetts". Internet Archive. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
  7. ^ The Price & Lee Co.'s Springfield Directory. Price & Lee Co. 1960. p. 22. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
  8. ^ Industrial Directory and Shippers' Guide. New York Central Lines. 1921. p. 266. Archived from the original on February 15, 2023. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
  9. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 28, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  10. ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Springfield, MA Metro Area". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
  11. ^ Brooke, Maxey (1983). "Everybody Comes From Somewhere". Word Ways. 16 (3). Butler University: 151–152. Archived from the original on August 30, 2017. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  12. ^ "Springfieldian". Merriam Webster English Dictionary (Online ed.). Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster, Inc. 2017. Archived from the original on August 30, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2017. a native or resident of Springfield (such as Springfield in Illinois, Massachusetts, or Ohio): springfielder
  13. ^ "Total Real Gross Domestic Product for Springfield, MA (MSA)". Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. January 2001. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017.
  14. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  15. ^ Phaneuf, Wayne (April 6, 2010). "Abolitionist John Brown's years in Springfield Ma. transform his anti-slavery thoughts and actions". Archived from the original on April 19, 2019.
  16. ^ Springfield Armory National Historic Site—Springfield Armory National Historic Site Archived March 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Nps.gov (August 2, 2013). Retrieved on August 21, 2013.
  17. ^ "Western Massachusetts 2010–2011 Economic Review" (PDF). March 22, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2015. Retrieved October 16, 2014.

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