Stanford University

Stanford University
Leland Stanford Junior University
Stanford University seal 2003.svg
MottoDie Luft der Freiheit weht (German)[1]
Motto in English
"The wind of freedom blows"[1]
TypePrivate research university
Established1891 (1891)[2][3]
FounderLeland and Jane Stanford
AccreditationWSCUC
Academic affiliations
Endowment$36.3 billion (2022)[4]
Budget$7.4 billion (2021–22)[5]
PresidentMarc Tessier-Lavigne
ProvostPersis Drell
Academic staff
2,279[6]
Administrative staff
15,314[7]
Students17,246 (Fall 2021)[8]
Undergraduates7,858 (Fall 2021)[8]
Postgraduates9,388 (Fall 2021)[8]
Location, ,
United States

37°25′42″N 122°10′08″W / 37.4282293°N 122.1688576°W / 37.4282293; -122.1688576[9]Coordinates: 37°25′42″N 122°10′08″W / 37.4282293°N 122.1688576°W / 37.4282293; -122.1688576[9]
CampusLarge suburban,[10] 8,180 acres (33.1 km2)[6]
Other campuses
NewspaperThe Stanford Daily
ColorsCardinal red & White[11]
   
NicknameCardinal
Sporting affiliations
MascotStanford Tree (unofficial – no official university mascot)[12]
Websitestanford.edu Edit this at Wikidata
Stanford wordmark (2012).svg

Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University,[13][14] is a private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies 8,180 acres (3,310 hectares), among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students.[15] Stanford is ranked among the top universities in the world.[16][17][18][19][20]

Stanford was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year.[2] Leland Stanford was a U.S. senator and former governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon. The school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891,[2][3] as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.[21] Following World War II, provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley.[22]

The university is organized around seven schools on the same campus: three schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate level as well as four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in law, medicine, education, and business. The university also houses the public policy think tank, the Hoover Institution. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference. As of May 26, 2022, Stanford has won 131 NCAA team championships,[23] more than any other university, and was awarded the NACDA Directors' Cup for 25 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995.[24] In addition, by 2021, Stanford students and alumni had won at least 296 Olympic medals including 150 gold and 79 silver medals.[25]

As of April 2021, 85 Nobel laureates, 29 Turing Award laureates,[note 1] and eight Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty, or staff.[46] In addition, Stanford is particularly noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.[47][48][49][50][51] Stanford alumni have founded numerous companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011, roughly equivalent to the seventh largest economy in the world (as of 2020).[52][53][54] Stanford is the alma mater of U.S. President Herbert Hoover, 74 living billionaires, and 17 astronauts.[55] In academia, its alumni include the current presidents of Yale and MIT and the provosts of Harvard and Princeton. It is also one of the leading producers of Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, and members of the United States Congress.[56]

  1. ^ a b Casper, Gerhard (October 5, 1995). Die Luft der Freiheit weht—On and Off (Speech). Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c "History: Stanford University". Stanford University. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Chapter 1: The University and the Faculty". Faculty Handbook. Stanford University. September 7, 2016. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  4. ^ "Stanford University reports return on investment portfolio, value of endowment". October 26, 2022. As of August 31, 2022.
  5. ^ "Finances – Facts 2020". May 6, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
  6. ^ a b Communications, Stanford Office of University. "Introduction: Stanford University Facts". Stanford Facts at a Glance. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  7. ^ "Stanford Factbook 2021" (PDF). Stanford University. November 9, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  8. ^ a b c "Stanford Facts". Stanford University. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
  9. ^ "Stanford University". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. January 19, 1981. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  10. ^ "IPEDS-Stanford University". Retrieved January 16, 2022.
  11. ^ "Color". Stanford Identity Toolkit. Stanford University. Retrieved January 16, 2022.
  12. ^ The Stanford Tree is the mascot of the band but not the university.
  13. ^ "'Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax – 2013' (IRS Form 990)" (PDF). foundationcenter.org. 990s.foundationcenter.org. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  14. ^ University, © Stanford; Stanford; California 94305. "The founding grant : with amendments, legislation, and court decrees". purl.stanford.edu. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  15. ^ Jones, Jennifer (November 21, 2019). "10 Largest College Campuses in the United States". Largest.org. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  16. ^ "The top 50 universities by reputation". timeshighereducation.com. November 3, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  17. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2021". Top Universities. May 28, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  18. ^ "World University Rankings 2020-21 | CWUR". cwur.org. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  19. ^ "World University Rankings". Times Higher Education (THE). August 20, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2021.
  20. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2021". ShanghaiRanking. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  21. ^ "History – Part 2 (The New Century) : Stanford University". Stanford.edu. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  22. ^ "History – Part 3 (The Rise of Silicon Valley) : Stanford University". Stanford.edu. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  23. ^ Athletics, Stanford (May 24, 2022). "Simply Dominant". gostanford.com. Stanford University. Retrieved June 1, 2022.
  24. ^ Conference, Pac-12 (July 2, 2018). "Stanford wins 24th-consecutive Directors' Cup". Pac-12 News. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  25. ^ Athletics, Stanford (July 1, 2016). "Olympic Medal History". Stanford University Athletics. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  26. ^ "Vinton Cerf – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  27. ^ "Allen Newell". acm.org.
  28. ^ "Martin Hellman". acm.org.
  29. ^ "John E Hopcroft". acm.org.
  30. ^ "Barbara Liskov". acm.org.
  31. ^ "Raj Reddy – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  32. ^ "Ronald L Rivest – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  33. ^ "Robert E Tarjan – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  34. ^ "Whitfield Diffie". acm.org.
  35. ^ "Douglas Engelbart". acm.org.
  36. ^ "Edward A Feigenbaum – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  37. ^ "Robert W. Floyd – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  38. ^ Lee, J.A.N. "Charles Antony Richard (Tony) Hoare". IEEE Computer Society. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  39. ^ "Alan Kay". acm.org.
  40. ^ "John McCarthy". acm.org.
  41. ^ "A J Milner – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  42. ^ "Amir Pnueli". acm.org.
  43. ^ "Dana S Scott – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  44. ^ "Niklaus E. Wirth". acm.org.
  45. ^ "Andrew C Yao – A.M. Turing Award Winner". acm.org.
  46. ^ Carey, Bjorn (August 12, 2014). "Stanford's Maryam Mirzakhani wins Fields Medal". Stanford Report. Stanford University. Retrieved September 17, 2015.
  47. ^ Cite error: The named reference Page was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  48. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  49. ^ Cite error: The named reference :2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  50. ^ Devaney, Tim (December 3, 2012). "One University To Rule Them All: Stanford Tops Startup List – ReadWrite". ReadWrite. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  51. ^ "The University Entrepreneurship Report – Alumni of Top Universities Rake in $12.6 Billion Across 559 Deals". CB Insights Research. October 29, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  52. ^ "Box". stanford.app.box.com. Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
  53. ^ Silver, Caleb (March 18, 2020). "The Top 20 Economies in the World". Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  54. ^ Krieger, Lisa M. (October 24, 2012). "Stanford alumni's companies combined equal tenth largest economy on the planet". The Mercury News. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  55. ^ Elkins, Kathleen (May 18, 2018). "More billionaires went to Harvard than to Stanford, MIT and Yale combined". cnbc. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  56. ^


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