State of Palestine

Coordinates: 32°00′N 35°15′E / 32.000°N 35.250°E / 32.000; 35.250

State of Palestine[a]
دولة فلسطين‎ (Arabic)
Dawlat Filasṭīn
Anthem: "فدائي"
"Fida'i"[1]
"Fedayeen Warrior"
Territory claimed by Palestine (green)[2] Territory also claimed by Israel (light green)
Territory claimed by Palestine (green)[2]
Territory also claimed by Israel (light green)
StatusPartially recognized state, UN observer state
Recognized by 138 UN member states
  • Proclaimed capital
  • Administrative
    center
Largest cityGaza City
Official languagesArabic
Demonym(s)Palestinian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[3]
• President
Mahmoud Abbasa
Mohammad Shtayyeh
Salim Zanoun
LegislatureNational Council
Formation
15 November 1988
29 November 2012
• Sovereignty dispute with Israel
Ongoingb[c][4][5]
Area
• Total
6,020[6] km2 (2,320 sq mi) (163rd)
• Water (%)
3.5[7]
5,655 km2
365 km2[8]
Population
• 2020 estimate
5,159,076[9][better source needed] (121st)
• Density
731/km2 (1,893.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$26.479 billion[10] ()
• Per capita
$5,795[11] ()
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$14.616 billion[12] ()
• Per capita
$3,199[13] ()
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 33.7[14]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.708[15]
high · 115th
Currency
Time zoneUTC+2 (Palestine Standard Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (Palestine Summer Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+970
ISO 3166 codePS
Internet TLD.ps
  1. Also the leader of the state's government.[d]
  2. The territory claimed is under Israeli occupation.
  3. Ramallah is the administrative center of the Palestinian National Authority.[17]

Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين, romanizedFilasṭīn), officially the State of Palestine[a] (دولة فلسطين, Dawlat Filasṭīn), is a state located in Western Asia. Officially governed by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), it claims the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip as its territory, though the entirety of that territory has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Six-Day War.[5][22] As a result of the Oslo Accords of 1993–1995, the West Bank is currently divided into 165 Palestinian enclaves that are under partial Palestinian National Authority (PNA) rule; the remainder, including 200 Israeli settlements, is under full Israeli control. The Gaza Strip has been ruled by the militant Islamic group Hamas and has been subject to a long-term blockade by Egypt and Israel since 2007.[c]

After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine, which recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem.[31] This Partition Plan was accepted by the Jews but rejected by the Arabs. Immediately after the United Nations General Assembly adopted the plan as Resolution 181, a civil war broke out[32] and the plan was not implemented.[33] The day after the establishment of the State of Israel on 14 May 1948,[34][35][36] neighbouring Arab countries invaded the former British Mandate and engaged Israeli forces in the First Arab–Israeli War.[37][38] Later, the All-Palestine Government was established by the Arab League on 22 September 1948 to govern the All-Palestine Protectorate in the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip. It was soon recognized by all Arab League members except Transjordan, which had occupied and later annexed the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Palestine is currently recognized by 138 of the 193 United Nations (UN) member states. Though jurisdiction of the All-Palestine Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.[39] Israel later captured the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria during the Six-Day War in June 1967.

On 15 November 1988 in Algiers, then-Chairman of the PLO Yasser Arafat proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine. A year after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993, the PNA was formed to govern (in varying degrees) areas A and B in the West Bank, comprising 165 enclaves, and the Gaza Strip. After Hamas became the PNA parliament's leading party in the most recent elections (2006), a conflict broke out between it and the Fatah party, leading to Gaza being taken over by Hamas in 2007 (two years after the Israeli disengagement).

Palestine has a population of 5,051,953 as of February 2020, ranked 121st in the world.[40][better source needed] Although Palestine claims Jerusalem as its capital, the city is under the control of Israel; both Palestine's and Israel's claims to the city are mostly not recognized by the international community. Palestine is a member of the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the G77, the International Olympic Committee, as well as UNESCO, UNCTAD and the International Criminal Court.[41] In 2012, the United Nations General Assembly voted to recognize Palestine as a non-member observer state.[42][43][44]


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "Palestine" (includes audio). nationalanthems.info. Archived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference only1967 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "Declaration of Independence (1988) (UN Doc)". State of Palestine Permanent Observer Mission to the United Nations. United Nations. 18 November 1988. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  4. ^ Miskin, Maayana (5 December 2012). "PA Weighs 'State of Palestine' Passport". israelnationalnews.com. Arutz Sheva. Archived from the original on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2014. A senior PA official revealed the plans in an interview with Al-Quds newspaper. The change to 'state' status is important because it shows that 'the state of Palestine is occupied,' he said.
  5. ^ a b "State of Palestine name change shows limitations". AP. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 10 January 2013. Israel remains in charge of territories the world says should one day make up that state.
  6. ^ "Table 3, Population by sex, annual rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). Demographic Yearbook. United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  7. ^ "The World Factbook: Middle East: West Bank". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  8. ^ "The World Factbook: Middle East: Gaza Strip". cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  9. ^ "State of Palestine Population". Worldometers. Worldometers. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  10. ^ "World Bank, International Comparison Program database: GDP, PPP (current international $)" (PDF). Data World Bank. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  11. ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – West Bank and Gaza | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  12. ^ "GDP (current US$) – West Bank and Gaza | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  13. ^ "GDP per capita (current US$) – West Bank and Gaza | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  14. ^ "GINI index coefficient: West Bank & Gaza". CIA Factbook. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  15. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  16. ^ According to Article 4 of the 1994 Paris Protocol Archived 1 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Protocol allows the Palestinian Authority to adopt multiple currencies. In the West Bank, the Israeli new sheqel and Jordanian dinar are widely accepted; while in the Gaza Strip, the Israeli new sheqel and Egyptian pound are widely accepted.
  17. ^ Eqeiq, Amal (1 May 2019). "From Haifa to Ramallah (and Back): New/Old Palestinian Literary Topography". Journal of Palestine Studies. 48 (3): 26–42. doi:10.1525/jps.2019.48.3.26. ISSN 0377-919X. S2CID 197823144. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  18. ^ "Full transcript of Abbas speech at UN General Assembly". Haaretz.com. 23 September 2011. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
  19. ^ Bissio, Robert Remo, ed. (1995). The World: A Third World Guide 1995–96. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-85598-291-1.
  20. ^ Baroud, Ramzy (2004). Kogan Page (ed.). Middle East Review (27th ed.). London: Kogan Page. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference GA43177 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Tahhan, Zena. "The Naksa: How Israel occupied the whole of Palestine in 1967". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  23. ^ a b Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones" Archived 26 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process Archived 2 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
  26. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Archived from the original on 1 November 2008. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  27. ^ Gold, Dore (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza Is Still 'Occupied' Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 5 (3). Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  28. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. 7 (29). Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  29. ^ Transcript (22 January 2008). "Address by FM Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  30. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  31. ^ "Resolution 181 (II). Future government of Palestine". United Nations. 29 November 1947. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  32. ^ Article "History of Palestine", Encyclopædia Britannica (2002 edition), article section written by Walid Ahmed Khalidi and Ian J. Bickerton.
  33. ^ Itzhak Galnoor (1995). The Partition of Palestine: Decision Crossroads in the Zionist Movement. SUNY Press. pp. 289–. ISBN 978-0-7914-2193-2. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  34. ^ "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  35. ^ Brenner, Michael; Frisch, Shelley (April 2003). Zionism: A Brief History. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 184.
  36. ^ "Zionist Leaders: David Ben-Gurion 1886–1973". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  37. ^ The Arab-Israeli War of 1948 (US Department of State, Office of the Historian) Archived 16 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine"Arab forces joining the Palestinian Arabs in attacking territory in the former Palestinian mandate."
  38. ^ Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948, 2006 – Chap. 8 "The Arab Regular Armies' Invasion of Palestine".
  39. ^ Gelber, Y. Palestine, 1948. pp. 177–78
  40. ^ "State of Palestine Population (2020) – Worldometer". www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  41. ^ "Membership of the State of Palestine in international organizations (as of 25 May 2018)". MOFAE.
  42. ^ Cite error: The named reference UNStatehoodBid2012accepted was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  43. ^ Charbonneau, Louis (29 November 2012). "Palestinians win implicit U.N. recognition of sovereign state". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  44. ^ Lederer, Edith M (30 November 2012). "Live Stream: Palestine asks United Nations for a 'birth certificate' ahead of vote". www.3news.com. New Zealand: MediaWorks TV. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2014.

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