Coordinates: 24°N 121°E / 24°N 121°E / 24; 121

Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Guógē
"National Anthem of the Republic of China"
Flag anthem: 
Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúoqígē
"National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China"
National seal:
Seal of the Republic of China
National flower:
Plum blossom
Meihua ROC.svg
Taiwan (orthographic projection).svg
Republic of China (orthographic projection).svg
25°04′N 121°31′E / 25.067°N 121.517°E / 25.067; 121.517
Largest cityNew Taipei City
Official languagesStandard Chinese[b][5][6][7]
Official scriptTraditional Chinese[8]
National languages[d]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Tsai Ing-wen
Lai Ching-te
• Premier
Su Tseng-chang
You Si-kun
Chen Chu
Hsu Tzong-li
Huang Jong-tsun
LegislatureLegislative Yuan
c. August 1624 [15]
14 June 1661
5 September 1683
17 April 1895[f]
10 October 1911[g]
• Taiwan and Penghu restored to ROC rule[h]
25 October 1945
25 December 1947
20 May 1948
7 December 1949
25 October 1971
31 July 1992
• Total
36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)[16][14]
• July 1, 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 23,894,394[17] (56th)
• 2010 census
• Density
650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (10th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.605 trillion[19] (19th)
• Per capita
Increase $68,730[19] (12th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $841.209 billion[19] (21st)
• Per capita
Increase $36,051[19] (31st)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 34.1[20]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.916[21]
very high · 23rd
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Date format
Driving sideright
Calling code+886
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet TLD

Taiwan,[II][j] officially the Republic of China (ROC),[I][k] is a country[23] in East Asia, at the junction of the East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The territories controlled by the ROC consist of 168 islands,[l] with a combined area of 36,193 square kilometres (13,974 sq mi).[16][34] The main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa, has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. The capital, Taipei, forms along with New Taipei City and Keelung the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan, and Taoyuan. With around 23.9 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated countries in the world.

Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years. Ancestors of Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, large-scale Han Chinese (specifically Hoklo) immigration to western Taiwan began under a Dutch colony and continued under the Kingdom of Tungning. The island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. The Republic of China, which had overthrown the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan on behalf of the Allies of World War II following the surrender of Japan in 1945. The resumption of the Chinese Civil War resulted in the ROC's loss of mainland China to forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and consequent retreat to Taiwan in 1949. Its effective jurisdiction has since been limited to Taiwan and smaller islands.

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialisation called the "Taiwan Miracle".[35] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC transitioned from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan's export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world by nominal GDP and 19th-largest by PPP measures, with a focus on steel, machinery, electronics and chemicals manufacturing. Taiwan is a developed country,[36][37] ranking 20th on GDP per capita. It is ranked highly in terms of civil liberties,[38] healthcare,[39] and human development.[m][21]

The political status of Taiwan is contentious.[43] The ROC no longer represents China as a member of the United Nations, after UN members voted in 1971 to recognize the PRC instead.[44] The ROC maintained its claim of being the sole legitimate representative of China and its territory, although this has been downplayed since its democratization in the 1990s. Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses diplomatic relations with countries that recognise the ROC. Taiwan maintains official diplomatic relations with 13 out of 193 UN member states and the Holy See,[44][45][46] though many others maintain unofficial diplomatic ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. International organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only on a non-state basis under various names. Domestically, the major political contention is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a pan-Chinese identity, contrasted with those aspiring to formal international recognition and promoting a Taiwanese identity; into the 21st century, both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.[47][48]

Cite error: There are <ref group=upper-roman> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=upper-roman}} template (see the help page).

  1. ^ "Since the implementation of the Act Governing Principles for Editing Geographical Educational Texts (地理敎科書編審原則) in 1997, the guiding principle for all maps in geographical textbooks was that Taipei was to be marked as the capital with a label stating: "Location of the Central Government"". 4 December 2013. Archived from the original on 1 November 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  2. ^ "Interior minister reaffirms Taipei is ROC's capital". Taipei Times. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
  3. ^ "推動雙語國家政策問題研析". www.ly.gov.tw (in Chinese). 23 July 2013. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  4. ^ "法律統一用語表-常見公文用語說明" (PDF) (in Chinese). Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  5. ^ Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan) (2012). "Chapter 2: People and Language". The Republic of China Yearbook 2012. p. 24. ISBN 9789860345902. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  6. ^ Government Information Office (2010). "Chapter 2: People and Language" (PDF). The Republic of China Yearbook 2010. p. 42. ISBN 9789860252781. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2011.
  7. ^ Liao, Silvie (2008). "A Perceptual Dialect Study of Taiwan Mandarin: Language Attitudes in the Era of Political Battle". In Chan, Marjorie K. M.; Kang, Hana (eds.). Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-20) (PDF). Vol. 1. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University. p. 393. ISBN 9780982471500. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 December 2013.
  8. ^ "行政院第3251次院會決議". www.ey.gov.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  9. ^ "Hakka Basic Act". law.moj.gov.tw. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Indigenous Languages Development Act". law.moj.gov.tw. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  11. ^ 國家語言發展法. law.moj.gov.tw (in Chinese). Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  12. ^ The Republic of China Yearbook 2016. Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2016. p. 10. ISBN 9789860499490. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Ethnicity: 70 percent Hoklo; 15 percent Hakka 10–15 percent mainlanders; 2 percent indigenous Austronesian peoples
  13. ^ Washington, Suite 800; Inquiries, DC 20036 USA202-419-4300 (2 April 2015). "Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  14. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference cia-factbook was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Gerrit van der Wees (13 February 2019). "How European explorers discovered Ilha Formosa". taipeitimes.com. Taipei Times. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  16. ^ a b "TAIWAN SNAPSHOT". Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  17. ^ "Population of Taiwan as of July 2022".
  18. ^ "General Statistical analysis report, Population and Housing Census" (PDF). National Statistics, ROC (Taiwan). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  19. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  20. ^ "Percentage share of disposable income by quintile groups of income recipients and measures of income distribution". stat.gov.tw. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  21. ^ a b "國情統計通報(第 014 號)" (PDF). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (ROC). 21 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  22. ^ "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. 25 June 2010.
  23. ^ Multiple sources:
  24. ^ "國情簡介-土地" [Country profile-Territories] (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Executive Yuan. 2022. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. 臺灣本島及其21個附屬島嶼面積共3萬5886.8623平方公里。 [The main island of Taiwan and its 21 associated islands have a total area of 35,886.8623 square kilometers.]
  25. ^ "Measure of the area". Penghu County Government. 2022. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  26. ^ "澎湖縣各行政區域島嶼簡介" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Kun Shan University. 2022. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020. 澎湖群島原為64個島嶼組成,經2005年澎湖縣政府重新進行澎湖群島島嶼數量清查,係由90座大小島嶼所組成。 [The Penghu Archipelago was conventionally considered to comprise 64 islands. In 2005, the Penghu County Government re-scrutinized the total number of islands in the archipelago, which consists of 90 islands of varying sizes.]
  27. ^ "自然環境" [Natural Environment] (PDF). 金門縣第四期(104–107年)離島綜合建設實施方案 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). National Development Council, Executive Yuan: 44. 23 December 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2022. 金門縣總面積151平方公里,除大金門本島外,尚包括小金門、大膽、二膽、東碇、北碇等17個島嶼。西距廈門外港約10海浬,東距臺灣約150海浬,為一典型大陸型島嶼。 [The total area of Kinmen County is 151 square kilometers. In addition to the main island of Kinmen, the county also includes Xiaokinmen, Dadan, Erdan, Dongding and Beiding for a total of 17 islands. It is about 10 nautical miles away from the Port of Xiamen to the west and 150 nautical miles away from Taiwan to the east. It is a typical continental island.]
  28. ^ "About Kinmen". Kinmen County Government. 8 December 2017. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  29. ^ "金門的地理與歷史概說" [The overview of geography and history of Kinmen] (PDF). 第四章 金門的地理、歷史與總體經濟分析 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). National Taiwan Normal University: 131–134. 20 February 2006. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  30. ^ Guy Plopsky (22 February 2017). "Taiwan's Cold War Fortresses". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  31. ^ "連江縣志 地理志" (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 馬祖資訊網. 12 May 2011. 馬祖列島所涵括的36座島嶼分屬四鄉,各鄉除了包括有聚落發展的較大島嶼外,還轄有數座無人島礁。 [Matsu islands encompass 36 Islands which are divided into four townships. In addition to the larger islands with inhabitants, each township also has numerous uninhabited islands and reefs]
  32. ^ Lung Tsun-Ni 龍村倪 (1998). 東沙群島-東沙島紀事集錦 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 臺灣綜合研究院. p. 13. ISBN 957-98189-0-8. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. 東沙島為東沙群島唯一島嶼 [Pratas Island is the only island in the Pratas Islands]
  33. ^ "Limits in the Seas – No. 127 Taiwan's Maritime Claims" (PDF). United States Department of State. 15 November 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2022. The Pratas Reef lies 230 miles to the southwest of the southern tip of Taiwan. It consists of an island in the mouth of a semicircular shoal open to the west.
  34. ^ Economic Development R.O.C (Taiwan) (Report). National Development Council (Taiwan). p. 4. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  35. ^ Gold (1985).
  36. ^ World Bank Country and Lending Groups Archived 11 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine, World Bank. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  37. ^ "IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, April 2016, p. 148" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2016.
  38. ^ "Democracy in Retreat". Freedom House. 3 January 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  39. ^ Yao, Grace; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Cheng, Chiao-Pi (5 November 2008). "The Quality of Life in Taiwan". Social Indicators Research. 92 (2): 377–404. doi:10.1007/s11205-008-9353-1. S2CID 144780750. a second place ranking in the 2000 Economist's world healthcare ranking
  40. ^ "- Human Development Reports" (PDF). hdr.undp.org.
  41. ^ 2018中華民國人類發展指數(HDI) (in Traditional Chinese). Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. 2018. Archived from the original (Excel) on 11 August 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  42. ^ "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 14 September 2018. OCLC 1061292121. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  43. ^ Horton, Chris (9 November 2021). "The World Is Fed Up With China's Belligerence". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 9 November 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  44. ^ a b Wood, Richard (27 November 2021). "What is behind the China-Taiwan dispute?". 9News. Nine Entertainment Company. Retrieved 27 November 2021. Experts agree a direct conflict is unlikely, but as the future of self-ruled Taiwan increasingly becomes a powder keg, a mishap or miscalculation could lead to confrontation while Chinese and American ambitions are at odds.
  45. ^ Dou, Eva (16 September 2019). "Solomon Islands Ends Diplomatic Ties with Taiwan, Stands by China". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  46. ^ Clarke, Melissa (20 September 2019). "Kiribati cuts ties with Taiwan in diplomatic switch to China days after Solomon Islands pivot". ABC News. Retrieved 20 September 2019.
  47. ^ Fell, Dafydd (2006). Party Politics in Taiwan. Routledge. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-134-24021-0.
  48. ^ Achen, Christopher H.; Wang, T. Y. (2017). "The Taiwan Voter: An Introduction". In Achen, Christopher H.; Wang, T. Y. (eds.). The Taiwan Voter. University of Michigan Press. pp. 1–25. doi:10.3998/mpub.9375036. ISBN 978-0-472-07353-5. pp. 1–2.

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