Trinidad and Tobago

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Motto: Together We Aspire, Together We Achieve
Anthem: "Forged from the Love of Liberty"
Location of Trinidad and Tobago
Location of Trinidad and Tobago
CapitalPort of Spain
10°40′0″N 61°30′27″W / 10.66667°N 61.50750°W / 10.66667; -61.50750
Largest citySan Fernando
10°17′N 61°28′W / 10.283°N 61.467°W / 10.283; -61.467
Official languagesEnglish[1]
Other languagesSee Languages in Trinidad and Tobago[2]
Ethnic groups
(2011)[3]
Religion
(2011)[3]
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Paula-Mae Weekes
Keith Rowley
Bridgid Annisette-George
Christine Kangaloo
Ivor Archie
Kamla Persad-Bissessar
LegislatureParliament
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
• Part of the West Indies Federation
3 January 1958 – 14 January 1962
31 August 1962
• Joined CARICOM at the Treaty of Chaguaramas
1 August 1973
• Republic
1 August 1976[a]
Area
• Total
5,131 km2 (1,981 sq mi) (164th)
• Water (%)
negligible
Population
• 2022 estimate
1,405,646[6] (157th)
• Density
264/km2 (683.8/sq mi) (34th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$45.148 billion
• Per capita
$32,684[7]
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$22.438 billion
• Per capita
$17,921[7]
Gini (2012)39.0[8]
medium
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.810[9]
very high · 57th
CurrencyTrinidad and Tobago dollar (TTD)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+1 (868)
ISO 3166 codeTT
Internet TLD.tt
  1. ^ Despite becoming a republic on 1 August, Republic Day is celebrated as a public holiday on 24 September because this is the date when the first Parliament met under the new Republican Constitution.[5]

Trinidad and Tobago (/ˈtrɪnɪdæd ...təˈbɡ/ (listen), /- t-/), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean. Consisting of the main islands Trinidad and Tobago, and numerous much smaller islands, it is situated 130 kilometres (81 miles) south of Grenada and 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) off the coast of northeastern Venezuela.[10] It shares maritime boundaries with Barbados to the northeast, Grenada to the northwest and Venezuela to the south and west.[11][12] Trinidad and Tobago is generally considered to be part of the West Indies. The island country's capital is Port of Spain, while its largest and most populous city is San Fernando.

The island of Trinidad was inhabited for centuries by Indigenous peoples before becoming a colony in the Spanish Empire, following the arrival of Christopher Columbus, in 1498. Spanish governor José María Chacón surrendered the island to a British fleet under the command of Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1797.[13] Trinidad and Tobago were ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens as separate states and unified in 1889.[14] Trinidad and Tobago obtained independence in 1962, becoming a republic in 1976.[15][10]

Trinidad and Tobago has the 5th highest GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP) in the Americas for a sovereign state after the United States, Canada, The Bahamas and Guyana as of 2022.[16] It is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy.[17] Unlike most Caribbean nations and territories, which rely heavily on tourism, the economy is primarily industrial with an emphasis on petroleum and petrochemicals;[18] much of the nation's wealth is derived from its large reserves of oil and natural gas.[19]

Trinidad and Tobago is well known for its African and Indian cultures, reflected in its large and famous Carnival, Diwali, and Hosay celebrations, as well being the birthplace of steelpan, the limbo, and music styles such as calypso, soca, rapso, parang, chutney, and chutney soca.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26]

  1. ^ Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. "Home". Ttconnect.gov.tt. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago – Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  3. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference 2011Census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ "Trinbagonian". Macmillan Dictionary. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  5. ^ "Republic Day". Archived from the original on 15 October 2022. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  6. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago". The World Factbook (2022 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  8. ^ Bridglal, Carla (12 March 2013). "Allowing govt to manage better". Trinidad Express. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  9. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  10. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference EBTT was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  11. ^ "Treaty between the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and the Republic of Venezuela on the delimitation of marine and submarine areas, 18 April 1990" (PDF). The United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  12. ^ "The 1990 Accord Replaces the 1942 Paris Treaty". Trinidad and Tobago News. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  13. ^ Carmichael (1961), pp. 40–42.
  14. ^ Carmichael (1961), p. 52.
  15. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago". CIA World Factbook. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 16 August 2019.
  16. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  17. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago | Data". World Bank. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  18. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago Country brief". The World Bank. Archived from the original on 12 January 2007.
  19. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago profile – Overview". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
  20. ^ "In Trinidad, Diwali Lights up like Christmas". NPR. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  21. ^ "Diwali in Trinidad and Tobago". trinidad.us. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  22. ^ Ingram, Amy. "What is Chutney Music?". Wesleyan University. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  23. ^ "Parang Music". Destination Trinidad and Tobago. Archived from the original on 10 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  24. ^ "Soca Music History". Artdrum. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  25. ^ "A brief history of the steel pan". BBC. 24 July 2012. Archived from the original on 15 October 2022. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  26. ^ "Trinidad Carnival for Beginners". Caribbean Beat. 1 January 1993. Archived from the original on 8 April 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.

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