Ukraine

Ukraine
Україна (Ukrainian)
Anthem: Державний Гімн України
Derzhavnyi Himn Ukrainy
"State Anthem of Ukraine"
Ukraine - disputed (orthographic projection).svg
Europe-Ukraine (и не контролируемые).png
Capital
and largest city
Kyiv
49°N 32°E / 49°N 32°E / 49; 32Coordinates: 49°N 32°E / 49°N 32°E / 49; 32
Official language
and national language
Ukrainian[1]
Ethnic groups
(2001)[2]
Religion
(2018)[3]
Demonym(s)Ukrainian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Volodymyr Zelenskyy
Denys Shmyhal
Ruslan Stefanchuk
LegislatureVerkhovna Rada
Formation
879
1199
1362
18 August 1649
10 June 1917
22 January 1918
1 November 1918
22 January 1919
24 August 1991
1 December 1991
28 June 1996
Area
• Total
603,628[4] km2 (233,062 sq mi) (45th)
• Water (%)
3.8[5]
Population
• January 2022 estimate
Neutral decrease 41,167,336[6]
(excluding Crimea) (36th)
• 2001 census
48,457,102[2]
• Density
73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $588 billion[7]
• Per capita
Increase $14,330[7]
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $198 billion[7]
• Per capita
Increase $4,830[7]
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 25.6[8]
low
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.773[9]
high · 77th
CurrencyHryvnia (₴) (UAH)
Time zoneUTC+2[10] (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+380
ISO 3166 codeUA
Internet TLD
Website
ukraine.ua

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanizedUkraïna, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (listen)) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which it borders to the east and northeast.[a][11] Prior to the ongoing conflict with Russia, Ukraine covered approximately 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi),[b] and was the eighth-most populous country in Europe, with a population of around 41 million people.[c][6] It is also bordered by Belarus to the north; by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and by Romania and Moldova[d] to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast.[e] Kyiv is the nation's capital and largest city. The country's national language is Ukrainian, and most people are also fluent in Russian.[14]

During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture under the state of Kievan Rus', which emerged in the 9th century and was ultimately destroyed by the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. After the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia emerged, the area was contested, divided, and ruled by a variety of external powers for the next 600 years; including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Tsardom of Russia. The Cossack Hetmanate emerged in central Ukraine in the 17th century, but was partitioned between Russia and Poland, and ultimately absorbed by the Russian Empire. After the Russian Revolution, a Ukrainian national movement re-emerged, and formed the Ukrainian People's Republic in 1917. This short-lived state was forcibly reconstituted by the Bolsheviks into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding member of the Soviet Union in 1922. In the 1930s, millions of Ukrainians were killed by the Holodomor, a Stalin-era man-made famine.

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine regained independence and declared itself neutral,[15] forming a limited military partnership with the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States, while also joining the Partnership for Peace with NATO in 1994. In 2013, a series of mass demonstrations, known as the Euromaidan, erupted across Ukraine, eventually escalating into the Revolution of Dignity in 2014, which led to the establishment of a new government and pro-Russian unrest. During this period, unmarked Russian troops invaded the Crimean Peninsula, which was later annexed by Russia; and pro-Russia unrest in Ukraine's Donbas culminated in Russia-backed separatists seizing territory throughout the region, sparking the War in Donbas. This series of events marked the beginning of the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, and in a major escalation of the conflict in February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine. Since the outbreak of war with Russia in 2014, Ukraine has continued to seek closer economic, political, and military ties with the Western world, including with the United States, European Union, and NATO.[16]

Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system and a developing country, ranking 77th on the Human Development Index. Ukraine is the poorest country in Europe by nominal GDP per capita,[17] and has high levels of corruption.[18][19] However, due to its extensive fertile land, pre-war Ukraine was one of the largest grain exporters in the world.[20][21] It is a founding member of the United Nations, as well as a member of the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the OSCE, and is currently in the process of joining the European Union.

  1. ^ "Law of Ukraine "On ensuring the functioning of Ukrainian as the state language": The status of Ukrainian and minority languages". 20 October 2020.
  2. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference Ethnic composition of the population of Ukraine, 2001 Census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Особливості Релігійного І Церковно-Релігійного Самовизначення Українських Громадян: Тенденції 2010-2018 [Features of Religious and Church - Religious Self-Determination of Ukrainian Citizens: Trends 2010-2018] (PDF) (in Ukrainian), Kyiv: Razumkov Center in collaboration with the All-Ukrainian Council of Churches, 22 April 2018, pp. 12, 13, 16, 31, archived (PDF) from the original on 26 April 2018
    Sample of 2,018 respondents aged 18 years and over, interviewed 23–28 March 2018 in all regions of Ukraine except Crimea and the occupied territories of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions.
  4. ^ "Ukraine". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 23 March 2022.
  5. ^ Jhariya, M.K.; Meena, R.S.; Banerjee, A. (2021). Ecological Intensification of Natural Resources for Sustainable Agriculture. Springer Singapore. p. 40. ISBN 978-981-334-203-3. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Population (by estimate) as of 1 January 2022". ukrcensus.gov.ua. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d "WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK (APRIL 2022)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund.
  8. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Ukraine". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  10. ^ Net, Korrespondent (18 October 2011). Рішення Ради: Україна 30 жовтня перейде на зимовий час [Rada Decision: Ukraine will change to winter time on 30 October] (in Ukrainian). korrespondent.net. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
  11. ^ "Ukraine country profile". BBC News. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  12. ^ "Ukraine 'temporarily' loses access to Sea of Azov, Defence Ministry says". Reuters. 19 March 2022. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  13. ^ Gotev, Georgi (22 April 2022). "Russian general says Moscow aim is to leave Ukraine as a landlocked country". Euractiv. Retrieved 12 August 2022.
  14. ^ Armitage, Susie (8 April 2022). "'Ukrainian has become a symbol': interest in language spikes amid Russia invasion". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  15. ^ "Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine". Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference European Commission Trade Ukraine was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ "What is wrong with the Ukrainian economy?". Atlantic Council. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  18. ^ Dlugy, Yana (1 July 2022). "Corruption in Ukraine". New York Times. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  19. ^ Korostelina, Karina V. (March 2013). "Ukraine twenty years after independence". Communist and Post-Communist Studies. University of California Press. 46 (1): 53–64. JSTOR 48610373.
  20. ^ "Ukraine becomes world's third biggest grain exporter in 2011 – minister" (Press release). Black Sea Grain. 20 January 2012. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  21. ^ "World Trade Report 2013". World Trade Organization. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014.


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