Voiced velar fricative

Voiced velar fricative
IPA Number141
Audio sample
Entity (decimal)ɣ
Unicode (hex)U+0263
Braille⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound that is used in various spoken languages. It is not found in Modern English but existed in Old English.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɣ⟩, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, ⟨γ⟩, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically-similar ⟨ɤ⟩, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel, which some writings[2] use for the voiced velar fricative.

The symbol ⟨ɣ⟩ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, which, however, is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [ɣ̞] or [ɣ˕]. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [ɰ].

There is also a voiced post-velar fricative, also called pre-uvular, in some languages. For the voiced pre-velar fricative, also called post-palatal, see voiced palatal fricative.

  1. ^ Baker, Peter Stuar (2012). Introduction to Old English (3rd ed.). pp. 15. ISBN 9781444354195. OCLC 778433078 – via Internet Archive. Between voiced sounds dotless g is pronounced [ɣ], a voiced velar spirant. This sound became [w] in Middle English, so English no longer has it.
  2. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).

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