A copyright is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to copy, distribute, adapt, display, and perform a creative work, usually for a limited time.[1][2][3][4][5] The creative work may be in a literary, artistic, educational, or musical form. Copyright is intended to protect the original expression of an idea in the form of a creative work, but not the idea itself.[6][7][8] A copyright is subject to limitations based on public interest considerations, such as the fair use doctrine in the United States.

Some jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders.[9][10][11][12][13][better source needed] These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and moral rights such as attribution.[14]

Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered "territorial rights". This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; many countries, and sometimes a large group of countries, have made agreements with other countries on procedures applicable when works "cross" national borders or national rights are inconsistent.[15]

Typically, the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities[5] to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without a formal registration. When the copyright of a work expires, it enters the public domain.

  1. ^ "Definition of copyright". Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 29 September 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  2. ^ "Definition of Copyright". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  3. ^ Nimmer on Copyright, vol. 2, § 8.01.
  4. ^ "Intellectual property", Black's Law Dictionary, 10th ed. (2014).
  5. ^ a b "Understanding Copyright and Related Rights" (PDF). p. 4. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  6. ^ Stim, Rich (27 March 2013). "Copyright Basics FAQ". The Center for Internet and Society Fair Use Project. Stanford University. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  7. ^ Daniel A. Tysver. "Works Unprotected by Copyright Law". Bitlaw.
  8. ^ Lee A. Hollaar. "Legal Protection of Digital Information". p. Chapter 1: An Overview of Copyright, Section II.E. Ideas Versus Expression.
  9. ^ Copyright, University of California, 2014, retrieved 15 December 2014
  10. ^ "Journal Conventions". Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  11. ^ Blackshaw, Ian S. (20 October 2011). Sports Marketing Agreements: Legal, Fiscal and Practical Aspects. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789067047937 – via Google Books.
  12. ^ Kaufman, Roy (16 July 2008). Publishing Forms and Contracts. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190451264 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ Ahmad, Tabrez; Snehil, Soumya (2011). "Significance of Fixation in Copyright Law". SSRN. SSRN 1839527. Archived from the original on 3 June 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2022.
  14. ^ "Copyright Basics" (PDF). U.S. Copyright Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 October 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2019.

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