Wikipedia

Wikipedia
An incomplete sphere made of large, white jigsaw puzzle pieces. Each puzzle piece contains one glyph from a different writing system, with each glyph written in black.
The Wikipedia wordmark which displays the name Wikipedia, written in all caps. The W and the A are the same height and both are taller than the other letters which are also all the same height. It also displays Wikipedia's slogan: "The Free Encyclopedia".
The logo of Wikipedia, a globe featuring glyphs from various writing systems
Screenshot
Wikipedia portal showing the different languages sorted by article count
Wikipedia's desktop homepage
Type of site
Online encyclopedia
Available in329 languages
Country of originUnited States
Owner
Created by
URLwikipedia.org
CommercialNo
RegistrationOptional[note 1]
Users>315,161 active editors[note 2]
>106,138,093 registered users
LaunchedJanuary 15, 2001 (2001-01-15)
Current statusActive
Content license
CC Attribution / Share-Alike 3.0
Most text is also dual-licensed under GFDL; media licensing varies
Written inLAMP platform[2]
OCLC number52075003

Wikipedia[note 3] is a multilingual free online encyclopedia written and maintained by a community of volunteers, known as Wikipedians, through open collaboration and using a wiki-based editing system. Wikipedia is the largest and most-read reference work in history.[3] It is consistently one of the 10 most popular websites ranked by Similarweb and formerly Alexa; as of 2022, Wikipedia was ranked the 5th most popular site in the world.[4] It is hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation, an American non-profit organization funded mainly through donations.[5]

Wikipedia was launched by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger on January 15, 2001. Sanger coined its name as a blend of wiki and encyclopedia.[6][7] Wales was influenced by the "spontaneous order" ideas associated with Friedrich Hayek and the Austrian School of economics after being exposed to these ideas by the libertarian economist Mark Thornton.[8] Initially available only in English, versions in other languages were quickly developed. Its combined editions comprise more than 60 million articles, attracting around 2 billion unique device visits per month and more than 15 million edits per month (about 5.7 edits per second on average) as of January 2023.[9][10] In 2006, Time magazine stated that the policy of allowing anyone to edit had made Wikipedia the "biggest (and perhaps best) encyclopedia in the world".[11]

Wikipedia has been praised for its enablement of the democratization of knowledge, extent of coverage, unique structure, culture, and reduced degree of commercial bias. It has been criticized for exhibiting systemic bias, particularly gender bias against women and alleged ideological bias.[12][13] The reliability of Wikipedia was frequently criticized in the 2000s, but has improved over time, as Wikipedia has been generally praised in the late 2010s and early 2020s.[3][12][14] The website's coverage of controversial topics such as American politics and major events like the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russian invasion of Ukraine has received substantial media attention.[15][16][17] It has been censored by world governments, ranging from specific pages to the entire site.[18][19] On 3 April 2018, Facebook and YouTube announced that they would help users detect fake news by suggesting fact-checking links to related Wikipedia articles.[20][21] Articles on breaking news are often accessed as a source of frequently updated information about those events.[22][23]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference autogenerated1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Chapman, Roger (September 6, 2011). "Top 40 Website Programming Languages". rogchap.com. Archived from the original on September 22, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2011.
  3. ^ a b "Wikipedia is 20, and its reputation has never been higher". The Economist. January 9, 2021. Archived from the original on December 31, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
  4. ^ "Top Websites ranking - Most Visited Websites in the world [December 2022]". Semrush. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  5. ^ "Frequently asked questions". Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved January 23, 2023.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference MiliardWho was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference J Sidener was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ "Wikipedia's Model Follows Hayek". The Wall Street Journal. April 15, 2009.
  9. ^ Cite error: The named reference small screen was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  10. ^ "Wikistats – Statistics For Wikimedia Projects". Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  11. ^ Anderson, Chris (May 8, 2006). "Jimmy Wales – The 2006 Time 100". Time. Archived from the original on October 12, 2022. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Happy Birthday, Wikipedia". The Economist. January 9, 2021. Archived from the original on January 1, 2023. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  13. ^ Harrison, Stephen (June 9, 2020). "How Wikipedia Became a Battleground for Racial Justice". Slate. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  14. ^ Cooke, Richard (February 17, 2020). "Wikipedia Is the Last Best Place on the Internet". Wired. Archived from the original on December 17, 2022. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  15. ^ Mangu-Ward, Katherine (October 1, 2022). "What Wikipedia Can Teach the Rest of the Internet". Reason. Archived from the original on December 22, 2022. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  16. ^ Kleinz, Torsten (March 3, 2022). "Ukraine-Krieg: Russische Medienaufsicht droht mit Wikipedia-Sperre - Die Online-Enzyklopädie informiert ausführlich über die Invasion der Ukraine und ist damit den russischen Behörden ein Dorn im Auge" [Ukraine-War: Russian media regulation threatens with blocking Wikipedia]. heise online (in German). Hannover, Germany: Heise Medien / Heise Gruppe GmbH & Co. KG. Archived from the original on March 20, 2022. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  17. ^ Sachdev, Shaan (February 26, 2021). "Wikipedia's Sprawling, Awe-Inspiring Coverage of the Pandemic". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Archived from the original on February 28, 2021. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  18. ^ Treisman, Rachel (April 1, 2022). "Russia threatens to fine Wikipedia if it doesn't remove some details about the war". NPR. Archived from the original on December 2, 2022. Retrieved January 22, 2023.
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Hughes, Taylor; Smith, Jeff; Leavitt, Alex (April 3, 2018). "Helping People Better Assess the Stories They See in News Feed with the Context Button". Meta. Archived from the original on January 11, 2023. Retrieved January 23, 2023.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference auto was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Kelly, Samantha Murphy (May 20, 2022). "Meet the Wikipedia editor who published the Buffalo shooting entry minutes after it started". CNN. Archived from the original on October 12, 2022. Retrieved May 24, 2022.
  23. ^ McNamee, Kai (September 15, 2022). "Fastest 'was' in the West: Inside Wikipedia's race to cover the queen's death". NPR. Archived from the original on January 15, 2023. Retrieved January 22, 2023.


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