Sri Lanka

7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhala)
  • இலங்கை சனநாயக சோசலிசக் குடியரசு (Tamil)
  • Sinhala:Śrī Laṅkā Prajātāntrika Samājavādī Janarajaya
    Tamil:Ilaṅkai Jaṉanāyaka Sōsalisak Kuṭiyarasu
Anthem: "Sri Lanka Matha"
(English: "Mother Sri Lanka")
Location of Sri Lanka
Largest cityColombo
Official languages
Recognised languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
70.2% Buddhism (official)[5]
12.6% Hinduism
9.7% Islam
7.4% Christianity
0.1% Other/None
Demonym(s)Sri Lankan
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[6]
• President
Ranil Wickremesinghe
Dinesh Gunawardena
Mahinda Yapa Abeywardena
Jayantha Jayasuriya
• Kingdom established[7]
543 BCE
• Rajarata established[8]
437 BCE
• Kandyan Convention signed
4 February 1948
• Republic
22 May 1972
7 September 1978
• Total
65,610.2 km2 (25,332.2 sq mi) (120th)
• Water (%)
• 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 22,181,000[9] (57th)
• 2012 census
• Density
337.7/km2 (874.6/sq mi) (24th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Decrease $318.6 billion[11] (60th)
• Per capita
Decrease $14,234[11] (101th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Decrease $73.7 billion[11] (79th)
• Per capita
Decrease $3,293[11] (132th)
Gini (2016)39.8[12]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.782[13]
high · 73rd
CurrencySri Lankan rupee (Rs) (LKR)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (SLST)
Date format
  • dd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+94
ISO 3166 codeLK
Internet TLD

Sri Lanka (UK: /sri ˈlæŋkə, ʃr -/, US: /- ˈlɑːŋkə/ (listen); Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා, romanized: Śrī Laṅkā (IPA: [ʃriː laŋkaː]); Tamil: இலங்கை, romanized: Ilaṅkai (IPA: [ilaŋɡaj])), formerly known as Ceylon and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia. It lies in the Indian Ocean, southwest of the Bay of Bengal, separated from the Indian peninsula by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait. Sri Lanka shares a maritime border with the Maldives in the south-west and India in the north-west.

Sri Lanka has a population of approximately 22 million people and is home to many cultures, languages, and ethnicities. The Sinhalese people form the majority of the nation's population, followed by the Tamils, who are the largest minority group and are concentrated in northern Sri Lanka; both groups have played an influential role in the island's history. Other long-established groups include the Moors, Indian Tamils, Burghers, Malays, Chinese, and Vedda.[14]

Sri Lanka's documented history goes back 3,000 years, with evidence of prehistoric human settlements that dates back 125,000 years.[15] The earliest known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, known collectively as the Pāli canon, date to the fourth Buddhist council, which took place in 29 BCE.[16][17] Also called the Teardrop of India, or the Granary of the East, Sri Lanka's geographic location and deep harbours have made it of great strategic importance, from the earliest days of the ancient Silk Road trade route to today's so-called maritime Silk Road.[18][19][20] Because its location made it a major trading hub, it was already known to both East Asians and Europeans as long ago as the Anuradhapura period. During a period of great political crisis in the Kingdom of Kotte, the Portuguese arrived in Sri Lanka and sought to control the island's maritime trade, with a part of Sri Lanka subsequently becoming a Portuguese possession. After the Sinhalese-Portuguese war, the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of Kandy took control of those areas. The Dutch possessions were then taken by the British, who later extended their control over the whole island, colonising it from 1815 to 1948. A national movement for political independence arose in the early 20th century, and in 1948, Ceylon became a dominion. The dominion was succeeded by the republic of Sri Lanka in 1972. Sri Lanka's more recent history was marred by a 26-year civil war, which began in 1983 and ended in 2009, when the Sri Lanka Armed Forces defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.[21]

Sri Lanka is a developing country, ranking 73rd on the Human Development Index. It is the highest-ranked South Asian nation in terms of development and has the second-highest per capita income in South Asia. However, the ongoing economic crisis has resulted in the collapse of its currency, rising inflation, and a humanitarian crisis due to a severe shortage of essentials. It has also led to an eruption of street protests, with citizens successfully demanding that the President and the Government step down.[22] The country has had a long history of engagement with modern international groups: it is a founding member of the SAARC and a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G77 and the Non-Aligned Movement.

  1. ^ "Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  2. ^ "Colombo". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  3. ^ "Official Languages Policy". Department of Official Languages. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  4. ^ "South Asia: Sri Lanka". CIA. 22 September 2021.
  5. ^ "2018 Report on International Religious Freedom: Sri Lanka". United States Department of State. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  6. ^ "Constitution of Sri Lanka" (PDF). Parliament of Sri Lanka. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  7. ^ De Silva, K. M. (1981). A History of Sri Lanka. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-19-561655-2. A History of Sri Lanka.
  8. ^ Nicholas, C. W.; Paranavitana, S. (1961). A Concise History of Ceylon. Colombo University Press.
  9. ^ "Mid‐year Population Estimates by District & Sex, 2014 ‐ 2022". Department of Census and Statistics. Retrieved 19 April 2023.
  10. ^ "Census of Population and Housing 2011 Enumeration Stage February–March 2012" (PDF). Department of Census and Statistics – Sri Lanka. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  11. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". International Monetary Fund. October 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  12. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank.
  13. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  14. ^ "Vedda". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  15. ^ Roberts, Brian (2006). "Sri Lanka: Introduction". Urbanization and sustainability in Asia: case studies of good practice. ISBN 978-971-561-607-2.
  16. ^ Jack Maguire (2001). Essential Buddhism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs and Practices. Simon and Schuster. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-671-04188-5. ... the Pali canon of Theravada is the earliest known collection of Buddhist writings ...
  17. ^ "Religions – Buddhism: Theravada Buddhism". BBC. 2 October 2002.
  18. ^ Bandaranayake, Senake (1990). "Sri Lankan Role in the Maritime Silk Route". Sri Lanka and the silk road of the sea. p. 21. ISBN 978-955-9043-02-7.
  19. ^ British Prime Minister Winston Churchill described the moment a Japanese fleet prepared to invade Sri Lanka as "the most dangerous and distressing moment of the entire conflict". – Commonwealth Air Training Program Museum, The Saviour of Ceylon Archived 22 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "A Brief History of Sri Lanka". Retrieved 14 August 2017.
  21. ^ Reuters Sri Lanka wins civil war, says kills rebel leader Archived 16 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine Reuters (18 May 2009). Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  22. ^ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (9 April 2022). "'We're finished': Sri Lankans pushed to the brink by financial crisis". The Observer. Retrieved 9 April 2022.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia · View on Wikipedia

Developed by Nelliwinne