Kingdom of Bahrain
مملكة البحرين (Arabic)
Mamlakat al-Bahrayn
Anthem: بحريننا
Our Bahrain
Location of Bahrain (in green)
Location of Bahrain (in green)
and largest city
26°13′N 50°35′E / 26.217°N 50.583°E / 26.217; 50.583
Official languagesArabic[1]
Recognised languagesEnglish[2][3]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary Islamic parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
• King
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa
LegislatureNational Assembly
Consultative Council
Council of Representatives
• Declared Independence[6]
14 August 1971
• Independence from United Kingdom[7]
15 August 1971
21 September 1971
14 February 2002
• Total
786.5[8] km2 (303.7 sq mi) (173rd)
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
1,463,265[9][10] (149th)
• 2020 census
• Density
1,912.7/km2 (4,953.9/sq mi) (3rd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$87.150 billion[11] (101st)
• Per capita
Increase$57,142[12] (23rd)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase$44.169 billion[12] (97th)
• Per capita
Increase$29,103[12] (39th)
HDI (2021)Increase 0.875[13]
very high · 35th
CurrencyBahraini dinar (BHD)
Time zoneUTC+3 (AST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+973
ISO 3166 codeBH
  1. Since 17 November 1967.[14]
  2. 46% are Bahraini citizens, 4.7% are other Arabs.

Bahrain (/bɑːˈrn/ (listen) bah-RAYN; /bæxˈrn/; Arabic: البحرين, romanizedal-Bahrayn, locally [æl baħˈreːn] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain,[a] is an island country in Western Asia. It is situated on the Persian Gulf, and comprises a small archipelago made up of 50 natural islands and an additional 33 artificial islands, centered on Bahrain Island which makes up around 83 percent of the country's landmass. Bahrain is situated between Qatar and the northeastern coast of Saudi Arabia, to which it is connected by the King Fahd Causeway. According to the 2020 census, the country's population numbers 1,501,635, of which 712,362 are Bahraini nationals.[4] Bahrain spans some 760 square kilometres (290 sq mi),[15] and is the third-smallest nation in Asia after the Maldives and Singapore.[16] The capital and largest city is Manama.

Bahrain is the site of the ancient Dilmun civilization.[17] It has been famed since antiquity for its pearl fisheries, which were considered the best in the world into the 19th century.[18] Bahrain was one of the earliest areas to be influenced by Islam, during the lifetime of Muhammad in 628 CE. Following a period of Arab rule, Bahrain was ruled by the Portuguese Empire from 1521 until 1602, when they were expelled by Shah Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty. In 1783, the Bani Utbah clan captured Bahrain from Nasr Al-Madhkur and it has since been ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family, with Ahmed al Fateh as Bahrain's first hakim.

In the late 1800s, following successive treaties with the British, Bahrain became a protectorate of the United Kingdom.[19] In 1971, it declared independence. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared an Islamic constitutional monarchy in 2002. In 2011, the country experienced protests inspired by the regional Arab Spring.[20] Bahrain's ruling Sunni Muslim Al Khalifa royal family has been criticised for violating the human rights of groups including dissidents, political opposition figures, and its majority Shia Muslim population.[21]

Bahrain developed the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf,[22] the result of decades of investing in the banking and tourism sectors;[23] many of the world's largest financial institutions have a presence in the country's capital. It consequently ranks 35th in the Human Development Index and is recognised by the World Bank as a high-income economy. Bahrain is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Gulf Cooperation Council.[24]

  1. ^ "CONSTITUTION OF THE KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN (ISSUED IN 2002) AND ITS AMENDMENTS (ISSUED IN 2012)" (PDF). National Institution for Human Rights. National Institute for Human Rights. Retrieved 31 August 2020.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference BO was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ "Living in Bahrain". BSB. Archived from the original on 24 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  4. ^ a b c "Bahrain 2020 Census". Information and eGovernment Authority. 28 February 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  5. ^ "National Profiles".
  6. ^ "Bahrain ends special pact". The Straits Times. 15 August 1971.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ "some spreadsheet". Retrieved 15 July 2022.
  9. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  10. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  11. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". International Monetary Fund. April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  12. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  13. ^ Human Development Report 2021-22: Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping our Future in a Transforming World (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. pp. 272–276. ISBN 978-9-211-26451-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  14. ^ Bahrain Government Annual Reports, Volume 8, Archive Editions, 1987, page 92
  15. ^ "Bahrain – the World Factbook". 19 October 2021.
  16. ^ "Area of Bahrain Expands to 765.3 square kilometres". Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  17. ^ Oman: The Lost Land Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Saudi Aramco World. Retrieved on 7 November 2016.
  18. ^ EB (1878).
  19. ^ "The history of British involvement in Bahrain's internal security". openDemocracy. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  20. ^ "Bahrain says ban on protests in response to rising violence". CNN. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  21. ^ "How Bahrain uses sport to whitewash a legacy of torture and human rights abuses | David Conn | Sport". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  22. ^ "Bahrain: Reform-Promise and Reality" (PDF). J.E. Peterson. p. 157.
  23. ^ "Bahrain's economy praised for diversity and sustainability". Bahrain Economic Development Board. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  24. ^ "Bahrain". IMUNA | NHSMUN | Model UN. Retrieved 7 July 2021.

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