Italy

Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12

Italian Republic
Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)
Anthem: "Il Canto degli Italiani"
"The Song of the Italians"
EU-Italy (orthographic projection).svg
EU-Italy.svg
Location of Italy (dark green)

– in Europe (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (light green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Rome
41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483
Official languagesItaliana
Native languagesSee main article
Religion
(2020)[1]
Demonym(s)Italian
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Sergio Mattarella
Mario Draghi
Elisabetta Casellati
Roberto Fico
LegislatureParliament
Senate of the Republic
Chamber of Deputies
Formation
17 March 1861
• Republic
2 June 1946
1 January 1948
• Founded the EEC (now EU)
1 January 1958
Area
• Total
301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi) (71st)
• Water (%)
1.24 (2015)[2]
Population
• 2022 estimate
Neutral decrease 58,983,000[3] (23rd)
• 2011 census
59,433,744[4]
• Density
201.3/km2 (521.4/sq mi) (74th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.972 trillion[5] (12th)
• Per capita
Increase $50,216[5] (31st)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.058 trillion[5] (9th)
• Per capita
Increase $34,797[5] (33rd)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 32.5[6]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.895[7]
very high · 30th
CurrencyEuro ()b (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
yyyy-mm-dd (AD)[8]
Driving sideright
Calling code+39c
ISO 3166 codeIT
Internet TLD.itd
  1. German is co-official in South Tyrol and Friuli Venezia Giulia; French is co-official in the Aosta Valley; Slovene is co-official in the province of Trieste, the province of Gorizia, and Friuli Venezia Giulia; Ladin is co-official in South Tyrol, in Trentino and in other northern areas; Friulian is co-official in Friuli Venezia Giulia; Sardinian is co-official in Sardinia.[9][10]
  2. Before 2002, the Italian lira. The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia but its official currency is the Swiss franc.[11]
  3. To call Campione d'Italia, it is necessary to use the Swiss code +41.
  4. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (listen)), officially the Italian Republic or the Republic of Italy[12][13] (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubblika itaˈljaːna]),[14][15] is a country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it;[note 1] its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.[16] Italy is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, in Southern Europe;[17][18][19] it is also considered part of Western Europe.[20][note 2] A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital and largest city, the country covers a total area of 301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland, Campione. With over 60 million inhabitants,[21] Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.

Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples, (such as the Latins and the Samnites) who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, the Etruscans inhabited most of central Italy, the Celts and the Ligures inhabited most of northern Italy, the Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of coastal Southern Italy, while the Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in Sardinia and Sicily.[22][23] The Italic tribe of the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed.[24][25]

During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Barbarian Invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous city-states and maritime republics, such as Florence, Milan, Venice and Genoa, became prosperous through trade, commerce, and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.[26][27] These mostly independent states served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East, often enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe; During the same period, part of central Italy was under the control of the theocratic Papal States, while Southern Italy remained largely feudal until the 19th century, partially as a result of a succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Angevin, Aragonese, and other foreign conquests of the region.[28] The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars, artists, and polymaths. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy's commercial and political power significantly waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean.[29] Centuries of rivalry and infighting between the Italian city-states, and the invasions of other European powers during the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left Italy politically fragmented. From the 17th to the 19th century larger states such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (successor state to the Florentine Republic) and the Duchy of Savoy had already incorporated most of their smaller neighbors states in Tuscany and Piedmont respectively, becoming regional states.[30][31]

By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism added to social, economic and military events led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval.[32] After centuries of political and territorial divisions, Italy was almost entirely unified in 1861 following a war of independence, establishing the Kingdom of Italy.[33] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy rapidly industrialised, mainly in the north, and acquired a colonial empire,[34] while the south remained largely impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora.[35] Despite being one of the victorious allied powers in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of the Italian fascist dictatorship in 1922. The participation of Fascist Italy in World War II on the Axis side and against the Allies ended in military defeat, economic destruction, and the occupation of Italy by Nazi Germany and the collaborationist Italian Social Republic. Following the rise of the Italian Resistance and the subsequent Italian Civil War and liberation of Italy, the country abolished its monarchy, established a democratic Republic, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, and became a highly developed country.[36]

Italy has an advanced economy. The country is the ninth-largest by nominal GDP (third in the European Union), the eighth-largest by national wealth and the third-largest by central bank gold reserve. It ranks highly in life expectancy, quality of life,[37] healthcare,[38] and education. The country is a great power, and it has a significant role in regional[39][40] and global[41][42] economic, military, cultural, and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Seven, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Latin Union, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area, and many more. The source of many inventions and discoveries, the country has long been a global centre of art, music, literature, philosophy, science and technology, and fashion and has greatly influenced and contributed to diverse fields including cinema, cuisine, sports, jurisprudence, banking, and business.[43] As a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy has the world's largest number of World Heritage Sites (58), and is the fifth-most visited country.

  1. ^ "Special Eurobarometer 516". European Union: European Commission. September 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021 – via European Data Portal (see Volume C: Country/socio-demographics: IT: Question D90.2.).
  2. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  3. ^ "Indicatori demografici". www.istat.it (in Italian). 8 April 2022. Retrieved 27 July 2022.
  4. ^ "La popolazione legale del 15° Censimento della popolazione". www.istat.it (in Italian). 19 December 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database". IMF.
  6. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  8. ^ Year-month-day also sometimes used, though rarely, mainly used for computing contexts. See Date and time notation in Italy.
  9. ^ "Legge Regionale 15 ottobre 1997, n. 26". Regione autonoma della Sardegna – Regione Autònoma de Sardigna.
  10. ^ "Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia – Comunità linguistiche regionali". www.regione.fvg.it.
  11. ^ "Comune di Campione d'Italia". Comune.campione-d-italia.co.it. 14 July 2010. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  12. ^ "United Nations – Change of name of country" (PDF). unterm.un.org. United Nations. 16 July 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016.
  13. ^ "OFFICIAL NAMES OF THE UNITED NATIONS MEMBERSHIP" (PDF). un.int. United Nations. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  14. ^ "COSTITUZIONE DELLA REPUBBLICA ITALIANA". www.gazzettaufficiale.it. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  15. ^ "Constitution of the Italian Republic (English)" (PDF). Senate of the Republic (Italy). Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  16. ^ "Italia", Dizionario enciclopedico italiano (in Italian), vol. VI, Treccani, 1970, p. 413
  17. ^ "Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  18. ^ "UNSD — Methodology". unstats.un.org.
  19. ^ "Italy – Facts, Geography, & History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  20. ^ "UNITED NATIONS DGACM". www.un.org.
  21. ^ "Italy Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
  22. ^ Carl Waldman; Catherine Mason (2006). Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. p. 586. ISBN 978-1-4381-2918-1. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  23. ^ "Liguri nell'Enciclopedia Treccani". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  24. ^ Lazenby, John Francis (4 February 1998). Hannibal's War: A Military History of the Second Punic War. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8061-3004-0 – via Internet Archive. Italy homeland of the Romans.
  25. ^ Maddison, Angus (20 September 2007). Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD: Essays in Macro-Economic History. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-922721-1 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ Sée, Henri. "Modern Capitalism Its Origin and Evolution" (PDF). University of Rennes. Batoche Books. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  27. ^ "Italian Trade Cities | Western Civilization". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  28. ^ Jepson, Tim (2012). National Geographic Traveler: Italy. National Geographic Books. ISBN 978-1-4262-0861-4.
  29. ^ Bouchard, Norma; Ferme, Valerio (2013). Italy and the Mediterranean: Words, Sounds, and Images of the Post-Cold War Era. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-34346-8. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  30. ^ Redazione (26 March 2020). ""Storia del Granducato di Toscana" di Gaetano Greco". Letture.org (in Italian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  31. ^ "Savoia nell'Enciclopedia Treccani". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  32. ^ "Risorgimento in "Dizionario di Storia"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  33. ^ "Unification of Italy". Library.thinkquest.org. 4 April 2003. Archived from the original on 7 March 2009. Retrieved 19 November 2009.
  34. ^ "The Italian Colonial Empire". All Empires. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012. At its peak, just before WWII, the Italian Empire comprehended the territories of present time Italy, Albania, Rhodes, Dodecanese, Libya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, the majority of Somalia and the little concession of Tientsin in China
  35. ^ Jon Rynn. "WHAT IS A GREAT POWER?" (PDF). economicreconstruction.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  36. ^ "IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, April 2016, p. 148" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 April 2016.
  37. ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index Archived 2 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Economist, 2005
  38. ^ "The World Health Organization's ranking of the world's health systems". Photius.com. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  39. ^ Gabriele Abbondanza, Italy as a Regional Power: the African Context from National Unification to the Present Day (Rome: Aracne, 2016)
  40. ^ "Operation Alba may be considered one of the most important instances in which Italy has acted as a regional power, taking the lead in executing a technically and politically coherent and determined strategy." See Federiga Bindi, Italy and the European Union (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2011), p. 171.
  41. ^ Canada Among Nations, 2004: Setting Priorities Straight. McGill-Queen's Press – MQUP. 17 January 2005. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-7735-2836-9. Retrieved 13 June 2016. ("The United States is the sole world's superpower. France, Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom are great powers")
  42. ^ Sterio, Milena (2013). The right to self-determination under international law: "selfistans", secession and the rule of the great powers. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. p. xii (preface). ISBN 978-0-415-66818-7. Retrieved 13 June 2016. ("The great powers are super-sovereign states: an exclusive club of the most powerful states economically, militarily, politically and strategically. These states include veto-wielding members of the United Nations Security Council (United States, United Kingdom, France, China, and Russia), as well as economic powerhouses such as Germany, Italy and Japan.")
  43. ^ Michael Barone (2 September 2010). "The essence of Italian culture and the challenge of the global age". Council for Research in Values and philosophy. Archived from the original on 22 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.


Cite error: There are <ref group=note> tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=note}} template (see the help page).


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia · View on Wikipedia

Developed by Nelliwinne