European Union

European Union
Bulgarian: Европейски съюз
Croatian: Europska unija
Czech: Evropská unie
Danish: Den Europæiske Union
Dutch: Europese Unie
Estonian: Euroopa Liit
Finnish: Euroopan unioni
French: Union européenne
German: Europäische Union
Greek: Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση
Hungarian: Európai Unió
Irish: An tAontas Eorpach
Italian: Unione europea
Latvian: Eiropas Savienība
Lithuanian: Europos Sąjunga
Maltese: Unjoni Ewropea
Polish: Unia Europejska
Portuguese: União Europeia
Romanian: Uniunea Europeană
Slovak: Európska únia
Slovene: Evropska unija
Spanish: Unión Europea
Swedish: Europeiska unionen
Circle of 12 gold stars on a blue background
Motto: "In Varietate Concordia" (Latin)
"United in Diversity"
Anthem: "Anthem of Europe"
Europe and the European Union.svg
Location of the European Union (dark green)

in Europe (dark grey)

Institutional seats
  • Parliament
Largest metropolisParis
Official languages24 languages
3 main official languages
  • English
  • French
  • German
Official scripts
Religion
(2015)[1]
Demonym(s)European
TypeSupranational union
Membership27 members
GovernmentMixed intergovernmental parliamentary confederation
Charles Michel
Ursula von der Leyen
LegislatureThe European Parliament and the Council
Council of the European Union
European Parliament
Formation[2]
17 March 1948
18 April 1951
1 January 1958
1 July 1987
1 November 1993
1 December 2009
Area
• Total
4,233,262 km2 (1,634,472 sq mi)
• Water (%)
3.08
Population
• 2021 estimate
Decrease 447,007,596[3]
• Density
106/km2 (274.5/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $21.52 trillion[4]
• Per capita
Increase $48,305[4]
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $17.08 trillion[4]
• Per capita
Increase $38,134
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 30.0[5]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.911[6]
very high
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC to UTC+2 (WET, CET, EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 to UTC+3 (WEST, CEST, EEST)
(see also Summer Time in Europe)[a]
Internet TLD.eu[b]
Website
europa.eu

The European Union (EU) is a supranational political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe.[7][8] The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity (without precedent or comparison) combining the characteristics of both a federation and a confederation.[9][10]

Containing 5.8 per cent of the world population in 2020,[c] the EU generated a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of around US$17.1 trillion in 2021,[4] constituting approximately 18 per cent of global nominal GDP.[12] Additionally, all EU states have a very high Human Development Index according to the United Nations Development Programme. Its cornerstone, the Customs Union, paved the way to establishing an internal single market based on standardised legal framework and legislation that applies in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where the states have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market;[13] enact legislation in justice and home affairs; and maintain common policies on trade,[14] agriculture,[15] fisheries and regional development.[16] Passport controls have been abolished for travel within the Schengen Area.[17] The eurozone is a group composed of the 19 EU member states that have fully implemented the economic and monetary union and use the euro currency. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the union has developed a role in external relations and defence. It maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Due to its global influence, the European Union has been described by some scholars as an emerging superpower.[18][19][20]

The union and EU citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993.[21] The EU traces its origins to the Western Union, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1948 Treaty of Brussels, the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome. The original member states of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. The communities and their successors have grown in size by the accession of 21 new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to their remit. The latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[22] In 2020, the United Kingdom became the only member state to leave the EU.[23] There are several other countries that are negotiating to join the European Union.

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference EB2015 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Current Article 1 of the Treaty on European Union reads: "The Union shall be founded on the present Treaty and on the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community".
  3. ^ "Population on 1 January". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021 (EU countries)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  5. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  6. ^ "Inequalities in Human Development in the 21st Century" (PDF). Human Development Report. p. 5.
  7. ^ "Glossary of Statistical Terms - COPENHAGEN CRITERIA". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 11 June 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  8. ^ "The EU in brief". European Union. 16 June 2016.
  9. ^ Phelan, William (2012). "What Is Sui Generis About the European Union? Costly International Cooperation in a Self-Contained Regime". International Studies Review. 14 (3): 367–385. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2486.2012.01136.x.
  10. ^ Hlavac, Marek (2010). "Less than a State, More than an International Organization: The Sui Generis Nature of the European Union" (PDF). Central European Labour Studies Institute. Rochester, N.Y. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1719308. S2CID 153480456.
  11. ^ "European Union reaches 500 Million through Combination of Accessions, Migration and Natural Growth". Vienna Institute of Demography. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  12. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  13. ^ European Commission. "The EU Single Market: Fewer barriers, more opportunities". Europa web portal. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
    "Activities of the European Union: Internal Market". Europa web portal. Retrieved 29 June 2007.
  14. ^ "Common commercial policy". Europa Glossary. Europa web portal. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2008.
  15. ^ "Agriculture and Fisheries Council". The Council of the European Union. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  16. ^ "Regional Policy Inforegio". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  17. ^ "Schengen area". Europa web portal. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
  18. ^ McCormick 2007.
  19. ^ Rifkin, Jeremy (2004). The European Dream. Polity Press. ISBN 1-58542-345-9.
  20. ^ Moravcsik, Andrew (2009). "Europe: The quiet superpower". French Politics. 7 (3–4): 403–422. doi:10.1057/fp.2009.29. ISSN 1476-3419. S2CID 143049416.
  21. ^ Craig & De Burca 2011, p. 15.
  22. ^ "EU collects Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo". BBC News. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  23. ^ Rawlinson, Kevin; Topping, Alexandra; Murphy, Simon; Henley, Jon; Murray, Jessica; Freedland, Jonathan; Rawlinson, Kevin (1 February 2020). "Brexit day: end of an era as United Kingdom leaves EU – as it happened-GB". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 June 2020.


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia · View on Wikipedia

Developed by Nelliwinne