France

Coordinates: 47°N 2°E / 47°N 2°E / 47; 2

French Republic
République française (French)
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
("Liberty, Equality, Fraternity")
Anthem: "La Marseillaise"
Great Seal
Obverse Reverse
EU-France (orthographic projection).svg
EU-France.svg
France in the World (+Antarctica claims).svg
Location of France (red or dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Paris
48°51′N 2°21′E / 48.850°N 2.350°E / 48.850; 2.350
Official language
and national language
French[II]
Nationality (2021)
Religion
(2016)[4]
Demonym(s)French
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Emmanuel Macron
Élisabeth Borne
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Establishment
10 August 843
3 July 987
22 September 1792
• Founded the EEC[III]
1 January 1958
4 October 1958
Area
• Total
643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi)[5] (42nd)
• Water (%)
0.86 (2015)[6]
551,695 km2 (213,011 sq mi)[IV] (50th)
• Metropolitan France (Cadastre)
543,940.9 km2 (210,016.8 sq mi)[V][7] (50th)
Population
• July 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 67,897,000[8] (20th)
• Density
105.4627/km2 (106th)
• Metropolitan France, estimate as of July 2022
Neutral increase 65,707,000[9] (23rd)
• Density
121/km2 (313.4/sq mi) (89th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.667 trillion[10] (10th)
• Per capita
Increase $56,036[10] (24th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.936 trillion[10] (7th)
• Per capita
Increase $44,747[10] (28th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 29.3[11]
low
HDI (2021)Increase 0.903[12]
very high · 28th
Currency
Time zoneUTC+1 (Central European Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (Central European Summer Time[IX])
Note: Various other time zones are observed in overseas France.[VIII]
Although France is in the UTC (Z) (Western European Time) zone, UTC+01:00 (Central European Time) was enforced as the standard time since 25 February 1940, upon German occupation in WW2, with a +0:50:39 offset (and +1:50:39 during DST) from Paris LMT (UTC+0:09:21).[13]
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+33[X]
ISO 3166 codeFR
Internet TLD.fr[XI]
Source gives area of metropolitan France as 551,500 km2 (212,900 sq mi) and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89,179 km2 (34,432 sq mi). Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi).

France (French: [fʁɑ̃s] Listen), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik frɑ̃sɛz]),[14] is a transcontinental country predominantly located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans.[XII] Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin. Its eighteen integral regions (five of which are overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain close to 68 million people (as of July 2022).[5][8] France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, and Nice.

Inhabited since the Palaeolithic era, the territory of Metropolitan France was settled by Celtic tribes known as Gauls during the Iron Age. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, leading to a distinct Gallo-Roman culture that laid the foundation of the French language. The Germanic Franks formed the Kingdom of Francia, which became the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with West Francia becoming the Kingdom of France in 987. In the High Middle Ages, France was a powerful but highly decentralised feudal kingdom. Philip II successfully strengthened royal power and defeated his rivals to double the size of the crown lands; by the end of his reign, France had emerged as the most powerful state in Europe. From the mid-14th to the mid-15th century, France was plunged into a series of dynastic conflicts involving England, collectively known as the Hundred Years' War, and a distinct French identity emerged as a result. The French Renaissance saw art and culture flourish, conflict with the House of Habsburg, and the establishment of a global colonial empire, which by the 20th century would become the second-largest in the world.[15] The second half of the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Huguenots that severely weakened the country. France again emerged as Europe's dominant power in the 17th century under Louis XIV following the Thirty Years' War.[16] Inadequate economic policies, inequitable taxes and frequent wars (notably a defeat in the Seven Years' War and costly involvement in the American War of Independence) left the kingdom in a precarious economic situation by the end of the 18th century. This precipitated the French Revolution of 1789, which overthrew the Ancien Régime and produced the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day.

France reached its political and military zenith in the early 19th century under Napoleon Bonaparte, subjugating much of continental Europe and establishing the First French Empire. The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of European and world history. The collapse of the empire initiated a period of relative decline, in which France endured a tumultuous succession of governments until the founding of the French Third Republic during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870. Subsequent decades saw a period of optimism, cultural and scientific flourishing, as well as economic prosperity, known as the Belle Époque. France was one of the major participants of World War I, from which it emerged victorious at a great human and economic cost. It was among the Allied powers of World War II but was soon occupied by the Axis in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, the short-lived Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The current Fifth Republic was formed in 1958 by Charles de Gaulle. Algeria and most French colonies became independent in the 1960s, with the majority retaining close economic and military ties with France.

France retains its centuries-long status as a global centre of art, science and philosophy. It hosts the fifth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the world's leading tourist destination, receiving over 89 million foreign visitors in 2018.[17] France is a developed country with the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP and tenth-largest by PPP; in terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world.[18] France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy and human development.[19] It remains a great power in global affairs,[20] being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and an official nuclear-weapon state. France is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the Eurozone,[21] as well as a key member of the Group of Seven, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Francophonie.

  1. ^ Article II of the Constitution of France (1958)
  2. ^ "The lictor's fasces". elysee.fr. 20 November 2012.
  3. ^ "Share of the population in France 2021, by nationality status". statista.com. 5 August 2022.
  4. ^ El Karoui, Hakim (19 September 2016). "A French Islam is possible" (PDF). Institut Montaigne. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Field Listing :: Area". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 31 January 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2015. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. ^ "France Métropolitaine". INSEE. 2011. Archived from the original on 28 August 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Demography – Population at the beginning of the month – France". Insee. 28 July 2022. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
  9. ^ "Demography – Population at the beginning of the month – Metropolitan France". insee.fr. 28 July 2022. Retrieved 14 August 2022.
  10. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". imf.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  11. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  12. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  13. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Paris, Île-de-France, France". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  14. ^ "France". UNGEGN World Geographical Names. New York, NY: United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  15. ^ Hargreaves, Alan G., ed. (2005). Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism. Lexington Books. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7391-0821-5.
  16. ^ R.R. Palmer; Joel Colton (1978). A History of the Modern World (5th ed.). p. 161.
  17. ^ "France posts new tourist record despite Yellow Vest unrest". France 24. 17 May 2019.
  18. ^ "Global Wealth Report" (PDF). Credit Suisse. October 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 November 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014. "In euro and USD terms, the total wealth of French households is very sizeable. Although it has just 1% of the world's adults, France ranks fourth among nations in aggregate household wealth – behind China and just ahead of Germany. Europe as a whole accounts for 35% of the individuals in the global top 1%, but France itself contributes a quarter of the European contingent.
  19. ^ "World Health Organization Assesses the World's Health Systems". World Health Organization. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2011.; "World Population Prospects – The 2006 Revision" (PDF). UN. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  20. ^ Jack S. Levy, War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495–1975, (2014) p. 29
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference superficy was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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