Republic of Ireland

Éire  (Irish)
Amhrán na bhFiann
"The Soldiers' Song"
Location of Ireland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the European Union (green)
Location of Ireland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)

and largest city
53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W / 53.34417°N 6.26750°W / 53.34417; -6.26750Coordinates: 53°N 8°W / 53°N 8°W / 53; -8
Official languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Michael D. Higgins
• Taoiseach
Micheál Martin
• Tánaiste
Leo Varadkar
Donal O'Donnell
24 April 1916
21 January 1919
6 December 1921
6 December 1922
29 December 1937
18 April 1949
• Total
70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) (118th)
• Water (%)
• 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 5,123,536[4] (122nd)
• 2016 census
• Density
71.3/km2 (184.7/sq mi) (113th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $633 billion[6] (40th)
• Per capita
Increase $124,596[6] (3rd)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $516 billion[6] (30th)
• Per capita
Increase $101,509[6] (2nd)
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 26.9[7]
low · 23rd
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.945[8]
very high · 8th
CurrencyEuro ()[c] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+353
ISO 3166 codeIE
  1. ^ Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland declares that the name of the state is Ireland; Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that Republic of Ireland is "the description of the State".[9]
  2. ^ Also "the national language", as per the Section 2 of the Official Languages Act 2003.
  3. ^ Prior to 2002, Ireland used the Irish pound as its circulated currency. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in 1999.
  4. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (listen)), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann),[a] is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern side of the island. Around 40% of the country's population of 5 million people resides in the Greater Dublin Area.[10] The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.[11] The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann; an upper house, Seanad Éireann; and an elected President (Uachtarán) who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.

The Irish Free State was created, with Dominion status, in 1922 following the Anglo-Irish Treaty. In 1937, a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Communities (EC), the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North/South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement.

One of Europe's major financial hubs is centred on Dublin. Ireland ranks among the top ten wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita,[12] although this has been partially ascribed to distortions caused by the tax inversion practices of various multinationals operating in Ireland.[13][14][15][16] From 2017, a modified gross national income (GNI*) was enacted by the Central Bank of Ireland, as the standard deviation was considered too materially distorted to accurately measure or represent the Irish economy.[17][18] After joining the EC, the country's government enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in economic growth between 1995 and 2007 now known as the Celtic Tiger period, before its subsequent reversal during the Great Recession.[19]

A developed country, Ireland's quality of life is ranked amongst the highest in the world, and the country performs well in several national performance metrics including healthcare, economic freedom and freedom of the press.[20][21] Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD. The Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since immediately prior to World War II and the country is consequently not a member of NATO,[22] although it is a member of Partnership for Peace and aspects of PESCO.

  1. ^ "Official Languages Act 2003". Office of the Attorney-General. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  2. ^ "CSO Census 2016 Chapter 6 – Ethnicity and Irish Travellers" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference REL was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ "Introduction - CSO - Central Statistics Office". Archived from the original on 23 June 2022. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  5. ^ "Press Statement | Census 2016 Summary Results – Part 1" (PDF). Central Statistics Office. 6 April 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 31 December 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  9. ^ Coakley, John (20 August 2009). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Taylor & Francis. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-415-47672-0. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
  10. ^ "Population and Migration Estimates, April 2018" Archived 26 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Central Statistics Office, released 28 August 2018
  11. ^ L. Prakke; C. A. J. M. Kortmann; J. C. E. van den Brandhof (2004), Constitutional Law of 15 EU Member States, Deventer: Kluwer, p. 429, ISBN 9013012558, Since 1937 Ireland has been a parliamentary republic, in which ministers appointed by the president depend on the confidence of parliament
  12. ^ "Country Comparison: GDP – per capita (PPP)". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  13. ^ "'Leprechaun Economics' Earn Ireland Ridicule, $443 Million Bill". Bloomberg L.P. 13 July 2016. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  14. ^ Gabriel Zucman; Thomas Torslov; Ludvig Wier (June 2018). "The Missing Profits of Nations". National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Papers. p. 31. Archived from the original on 10 June 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2021. Appendix Table 2: Tax Havens
  15. ^ "Ireland is the world's biggest corporate 'tax haven', say academics". The Irish Times. 13 June 2018. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2021. New Gabriel Zucman study claims State shelters more multinational profits than the entire Caribbean
  16. ^ "Financial Stability Board 2017 Report: The largest shadow banking centres". Irish Independent. 6 March 2018. Archived from the original on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference gni1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cite error: The named reference gni2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  19. ^ Nicoll, Ruaridh (16 May 2009). "Ireland: As the Celtic Tiger roars its last". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
  20. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. p. 343. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  21. ^ Henry, Mark (2021). In Fact An Optimist's Guide to Ireland at 100. Dublin: Gill Books. ISBN 978-0-7171-9039-3. OCLC 1276861968. Archived from the original on 25 August 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  22. ^ "NATO – Member countries". NATO. Archived from the original on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2014.

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