English language

English
Pronunciation/ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/[1]
EthnicityEnglish people (see also Anglophones)
Native speakers
360–400 million (2006)[2]
L2 speakers: 750 million;
as a foreign language: 600–700 million[2]
Early forms
Manually coded English
(multiple systems)
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-1en
ISO 639-2eng
ISO 639-3eng
Glottologstan1293
Linguasphere52-ABA
Detailed SVG map of the Anglophone world.svg
  States where English or an English-based creole is the native language of the majority
  States where English is an official language, but not the most spoken language
  States where English is a working languages of the government, language of education, or spoken by more than 20% of the population
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English is a West Germanic language in the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England.[3][4][5] It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the island of Great Britain. Existing on a dialect continuum with Scots, and then most closely related to the Low German and Frisian languages, English is genealogically Germanic. However, its vocabulary also shows major influences from French (about 28% of Modern English words) and Latin (also about 28%),[6] plus some grammar and a small amount of core vocabulary influenced by Old Norse (a North Germanic language).[7][8][9] Speakers of English are called Anglophones.

The earliest forms of English, collectively known as Old English, evolved from a group of North Sea Germanic dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century and further mutated by Norse-speaking Viking settlers starting in the 8th and 9th centuries. Middle English began in the late 11th century after the Norman Conquest of England, when considerable Old French (especially Old Norman French) and Latin-derived vocabulary was incorporated into English over some three hundred years.[10][11] Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the start of the Great Vowel Shift and the Renaissance trend of borrowing further Latin and Greek words and roots into English, concurrent with the introduction of the printing press to London. This era notably culminated in the King James Bible and plays of William Shakespeare.[12][13]

Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent-marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, and a fairly fixed subject–verb–object word order.[14] Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation.

Modern English has spread around the world since the 17th century as a consequence of the worldwide influence of the British Empire and the United States of America. Through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.[3] English is the most spoken language in the world[15] and the third-most spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish.[16] It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in 59 sovereign states. There are more people who have learned English as a second language than there are native speakers. As of 2005, it was estimated that there were over 2 billion speakers of English.[17] English is the majority native language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the Republic of Ireland (see Anglosphere), and is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania.[18] It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. English accounts for at least 70% of speakers of the Germanic language branch of Indo-European.

  1. ^ Oxford Learner's Dictionary 2015, Entry: English – Pronunciation.
  2. ^ a b Crystal 2006, pp. 424–426.
  3. ^ a b The Routes of English.
  4. ^ Crystal 2003a, p. 6.
  5. ^ Wardhaugh 2010, p. 55.
  6. ^ Burnley, David (1992). "LEXIS AND SEMANTICS". In N. Blake (Ed.), The Cambridge History of the English Language (The Cambridge History of the English Language, pp. 409-499). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521264754.006: "Latin and French each account for a little more than 28 per cent of the lexis recorded in the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (Finkenstaedt & Wolff 1973)".
  7. ^ Finkenstaedt, Thomas; Dieter Wolff (1973). Ordered profusion; studies in dictionaries and the English lexicon. C. Winter. ISBN 978-3-533-02253-4.
  8. ^ Bammesberger 1992, p. 30.
  9. ^ Svartvik & Leech 2006, p. 39.
  10. ^ Ian Short, A Companion to the Anglo-Norman World, "Language and Literature", Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2007. (p. 193)
  11. ^ Crystal 2003b, p. 30.
  12. ^ "How English evolved into a global language". BBC. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  13. ^ Crystal, David; Potter, Simeon (editors). "English language: Historical background". Encyclopædia Britannica. Dec. 2021.
  14. ^ König 1994, p. 539.
  15. ^ English at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019) closed access
  16. ^ Ethnologue 2010.
  17. ^ Crystal, David (2008). "Two thousand million?". English Today. 24 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1017/S0266078408000023. S2CID 145597019.
  18. ^ Crystal 2003b, pp. 108–109.

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