English language

English
Pronunciation/ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/[1]
EthnicityEnglish people (see also Anglophones)
Native speakers
360–400 million (2006)[2]
L2 speakers: 750 million;
as a foreign language: 600–700 million[2]
Early forms
Manually coded English
(multiple systems)
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in
Worldwide, especially in
Language codes
ISO 639-1en
ISO 639-2eng
ISO 639-3eng
Glottologstan1293
Linguasphere52-ABA
English language distribution.svg
  Regions where English is a majority native language
  Regions where English is official or widely spoken, but not as a primary native language
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English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England.[3][4][5] It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the island of Great Britain. English is genealogically West Germanic, closest related to the Low Saxon and Frisian languages; however, its vocabulary is also distinctively influenced by dialects of French (about 29% of modern English words) and Latin (also about 29%), plus some grammar and a small amount of core vocabulary influenced by Old Norse (a North Germanic language).[6][7][8] Speakers of English are called Anglophones.

The earliest forms of English, collectively known as Old English, evolved from a group of West Germanic (Ingvaeonic) dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century and further mutated by Norse-speaking Viking settlers starting in the 8th and 9th centuries. Middle English began in the late 11th century after the Norman conquest of England, when considerable French (especially Old Norman) and Latin-derived vocabulary was incorporated into English over some three hundred years.[9][10] Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the start of the Great Vowel Shift and the Renaissance trend of borrowing further Latin and Greek words and roots into English, concurrent with the introduction of the printing press to London. This era notably culminated in the King James Bible and plays of William Shakespeare.[11][12]

Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent-marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, and a fairly fixed subject–verb–object word order.[13] Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation.

Modern English has spread around the world since the 17th century as a consequence of the worldwide influence of the British Empire and the United States of America. Through all types of printed and electronic media of these countries, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science, navigation and law.[3] English is the most spoken language in the world[14] and the third-most spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish.[15] It is the most widely learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in 59 sovereign states. There are more people who have learned English as a second language than there are native speakers. As of 2005, it was estimated that there were over 2 billion speakers of English.[16] English is the majority native language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand (see Anglosphere) and the Republic of Ireland, and is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania.[17] It is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. It is the most widely spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch.

  1. ^ Oxford Learner's Dictionary 2015, Entry: English – Pronunciation.
  2. ^ a b Crystal 2006, pp. 424–426.
  3. ^ a b The Routes of English.
  4. ^ Crystal 2003a, p. 6.
  5. ^ Wardhaugh 2010, p. 55.
  6. ^ Finkenstaedt, Thomas; Dieter Wolff (1973). Ordered profusion; studies in dictionaries and the English lexicon. C. Winter. ISBN 978-3-533-02253-4.
  7. ^ Bammesberger 1992, p. 30.
  8. ^ Svartvik & Leech 2006, p. 39.
  9. ^ Ian Short, A Companion to the Anglo-Norman World, "Language and Literature", Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2007. (p. 193)
  10. ^ Crystal 2003b, p. 30.
  11. ^ "How English evolved into a global language". BBC. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  12. ^ Crystal, David; Potter, Simeon (editors). "English language: Historical background". Encyclopædia Britannica. Dec. 2021.
  13. ^ König 1994, p. 539.
  14. ^ English at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  15. ^ Ethnologue 2010.
  16. ^ Crystal, David (2008). "Two thousand million?". English Today. 24 (1): 3–6. doi:10.1017/S0266078408000023. S2CID 145597019.
  17. ^ Crystal 2003b, pp. 108–109.

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