United States

United States of America
Motto: "In God We Trust"[1]
Other traditional mottos:[2]
Anthem: "The Star-Spangled Banner"[3]
Orthographic map of the U.S. in North America
World map showing the U.S. and its territories
CapitalWashington, D.C.
38°53′N 77°1′W / 38.883°N 77.017°W / 38.883; -77.017
Largest cityNew York City
40°43′N 74°0′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W / 40.717; -74.000
Official languagesNone at the federal level[a]
National languageEnglish (de facto)
Ethnic groups
(2020)[4][5][6]
By race:
By origin:
Religion
(2022)[7]
  • 21% unaffiliated
  • 2% Judaism
  • 6% other religion
  • 1% unanswered
Demonym(s)American[b][8]
GovernmentFederal presidential republic
• President
Joe Biden
Kamala Harris
Mike Johnson
John Roberts
LegislatureCongress
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
July 4, 1776 (1776-07-04)
March 1, 1781 (1781-03-01)
September 3, 1783 (1783-09-03)
June 21, 1788 (1788-06-21)
May 5, 1992 (1992-05-05)
Area
• Total area
3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2)[9] (3rd[c])
• Water (%)
7.0[10] (2018)
• Land area
3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2) (3rd)
Population
• 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 334,914,895[11]
• 2020 census
331,449,281[d][12] (3rd)
• Density
87/sq mi (33.6/km2) (185th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $26.950 trillion[13] (2nd)
• Per capita
Increase $80,412[13] (9th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $26.950 trillion[13] (1st)
• Per capita
Increase $80,412[13] (7th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 39.4[e][14]
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.921[15]
very high · 21st
CurrencyU.S. dollar ($) (USD)
Time zoneUTC−4 to −12, +10, +11
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 to −10[f]
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy[g]
Driving sideright[h]
Calling code+1
ISO 3166 codeUS
Internet TLD.us[16]

The United States of America (USA or U.S.A.), commonly known as the United States (US or U.S.) or America, is a country primarily located in North America, between Canada and Mexico. It is a federation of 50 states, a federal capital district (Washington, D.C.), and 326 Indian reservations that overlap with state boundaries. Outside the union of states, it asserts sovereignty over five major unincorporated island territories and various uninhabited islands.[i] The country has the world's third-largest land area,[c] largest maritime exclusive economic zone, and the third-largest population, exceeding 334 million.[j]

Paleo-Indians migrated across the Bering land bridge more than 12,000 years ago. British colonization led to the first settlement of the Thirteen Colonies in Virginia in 1607. Clashes with the British Crown over taxation and political representation sparked the American Revolution and the Revolutionary War of 1775–1783. The Second Continental Congress voted for independence and formally declared independence on July 4, 1776. The country began expanding across North America. As more states were admitted, sectional division over slavery led to the secession of the Confederate States of America, which fought the remaining states of the Union during the 1861–1865 American Civil War. With the Union's victory and preservation, slavery was abolished nationally. By 1900, the United States had established itself as a great power, becoming the world's largest economy. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the U.S. entered World War II. The aftermath of the war left the U.S. and the Soviet Union as the world's two superpowers and led to the Cold War, during which both countries engaged in a struggle for ideological dominance and international influence. Following the Soviet Union's collapse and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the U.S. emerged as the world's sole superpower.

The U.S. national government is a presidential constitutional republic and liberal democracy with three separate branches of government: legislative, executive, and judicial. It has a bicameral national legislature composed of the House of Representatives, a lower house based on population; and the Senate, an upper house based on equal representation for each state. Substantial autonomy is given to states and several territories, with a political culture that emphasizes liberty, equality under the law, individualism, and limited government.

One of the world's most developed countries, the United States ranks among the highest in the world in international measures of income, wealth, economic competitiveness, productivity, innovation, human rights, and higher education. It has the highest median income per capita of any non-microstate and possesses by far the largest amount of wealth of any country, with the American economy the largest nominally and accounting for over a quarter of global GDP. The U.S. is a founding member of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, NATO, Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, WHO, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

  1. ^ 36 U.S.C. § 302
  2. ^ "The Great Seal of the United States" (PDF). U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  3. ^ "An Act To make The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem of the United States of America". H.R. 14, Act of March 3, 1931. 71st United States Congress.
  4. ^ "2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country". United States Census. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  5. ^ "Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census". United States Census. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  6. ^ "A Breakdown of 2020 Census Demographic Data". NPR. August 13, 2021.
  7. ^ Staff (June 8, 2007). "In Depth: Topics A to Z (Religion)". Gallup, Inc. Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  8. ^ Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and Fact-index: Ohio. 1963. p. 336.
  9. ^ Areas of the 50 states and the District of Columbia but not Puerto Rico nor other island territories per "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Census.gov. August 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2020. reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.
  10. ^ "The Water Area of Each State". United States Geological Survey. 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2024.
  11. ^ Bureau, US Census. "U.S. Population Trends Return to Pre-Pandemic Norms as More States Gain Population". Census.gov. Retrieved December 23, 2023.
  12. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Today Delivers State Population Totals for Congressional Apportionment". United States Census. Retrieved April 26, 2021. The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (US)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. October 10, 2023. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  14. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Income and Poverty in the United States: 2020". Census.gov. p. 48. Retrieved July 26, 2022.
  15. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. September 8, 2022. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  16. ^ "The Difference Between .us vs .com". Cozab. January 3, 2022. Archived from the original on April 16, 2023. Retrieved August 11, 2023.
  17. ^ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
  18. ^ "China". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
  19. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2010.


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