Nigeria

Coordinates: 8°N 10°E / 8°N 10°E / 8; 10

Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Jamhuriyar Tarayyar Najeriya  (Hausa)
  • Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìniira Àpapọ̀ Nàìjíríà  (Yoruba)
  • Ọ̀hàńjíkọ̀ Ọ̀hànézè Naìjíríyà  (Igbo)
Motto: "Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress"
Anthem: "Arise, O Compatriots"
Nigeria (orthographic projection).svg
Location Nigeria AU Africa.svg
CapitalAbuja
9°4′N 7°29′E / 9.067°N 7.483°E / 9.067; 7.483
Largest cityLagos
Official languagesEnglish
National languages
Regional languages[2]Over 525 languages[1]
Ethnic groups
(2018)[3]
Demonym(s)Nigerian
GovernmentFederal presidential republic
• President
Muhammadu Buhari
Yemi Osinbajo
Ahmed Lawan
Femi Gbajabiamila
Olukayode Ariwoola
LegislatureNational Assembly
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
1 October 1960
1 October 1963
29 May 1999
Area
• Total
923,769 km2 (356,669 sq mi) (31st)
• Water (%)
1.4
Population
• 2022 estimate
Increase218,541,212[4] (6th)
• 2006 census
140,431,691
• Density
218/km2 (564.6/sq mi) (42nd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$1.268 trillion[5] (26th)
• Per capita
$5,853 (147th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$510.588 billion[5] (31th)
• Per capita
$2,356 (146th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 35.1[6]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.539[7]
low · 161st
CurrencyNaira (₦) (NGN)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (WAT)
Driving sideright[8]
Calling code+234
ISO 3166 codeNG
Internet TLD.ng

Nigeria (/nˈɪəriə/ Listen), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is situated between the Sahel to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south in the Atlantic Ocean. It covers an area of 923,769 square kilometres (356,669 sq mi), and with a population of over 218 million, it is the most populous country in Africa, and the world's sixth-most populous country. Nigeria borders Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Nigeria is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The largest city in Nigeria is Lagos, one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world and the second-largest in Africa.

Nigeria has been home to several indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms since the second millennium BC, with the Nok civilization in the 15th century BC, marking the first internal unification in the country. The modern state originated with British colonialization in the 19th century, taking its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914 by Lord Lugard. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms in the Nigeria region.[9] Nigeria became a formally independent federation on 1 October, 1960. It experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970, followed by a succession of military dictatorships and democratically elected civilian governments until achieving a stable democracy in the 1999 presidential election. The 2015 general election was the first time an incumbent president would lose re-election.[10]

Nigeria is a multinational state inhabited by more than 250 ethnic groups speaking 500 distinct languages, all identifying with a wide variety of cultures.[11][12][13] The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa in the north, Yoruba in the west, and Igbo in the east, together comprising over 60% of the total population.[14] The official language is English, chosen to facilitate linguistic unity at the national level.[15] Nigeria's constitution ensures freedom of religion[16] and it is home to some of the world's largest Muslim and Christian populations, simultaneously.[17] Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Muslims, who live mostly in the north, and Christians, who live mostly in the south; indigenous religions, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities, are in the minority.[18]

Nigeria is a regional power in Africa, a middle power in international affairs, and is an emerging global power. Nigeria's economy is the largest in Africa, the 31st-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and 26th-largest by PPP. Nigeria is often referred to as the Giant of Africa owing to its large population and economy[19] and is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, the country ranks very low in the Human Development Index and remains one of the most corrupt nations in the world.[20][21] Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, NAM,[22] the Economic Community of West African States, and OPEC. It is also a member of the informal MINT group of countries and is one of the Next Eleven economies.

  1. ^ Blench, Roger (2014). An Atlas Of Nigerian Languages. Oxford: Kay Williamson Educational Foundation.
  2. ^ "Languages of Nigeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  3. ^ "Africa: Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  4. ^ "Nigeria Population Growth Rate 1950-2022". macrotrends. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  5. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020 – Nigeria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  6. ^ "Poverty and Inequality Index". National Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  7. ^ Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  8. ^ Akinbode, Ayomide (2 April 2019). "Why Nigeria changed from Right-Hand Drive to Left-Hand Drive in 1972". www.thehistoryville.com. Retrieved 9 July 2021. The terms 'right- and left-hand drive' refer to the position of the driver in the vehicle and are the reverse of the terms 'right- and left-hand traffic'.
  9. ^ Achebe, Nwando. The female king of colonial Nigeria : Ahebi Ugbabe. Bloomington. ISBN 978-0-253-00507-6. OCLC 707092916.
  10. ^ "Nigeria's Buhari wins historic election landslide". Reuters. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Ethnicity in Nigeria". PBS. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  12. ^ "Nigeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  13. ^ Pereltsvaig, Asya (16 June 2011). "Linguistic diversity in Africa and Europe – Languages Of The World". Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  14. ^ "NIGERIA – CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2019" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  15. ^ Mann, Charles C. (1990). "Choosing an Indigenous Official Language for Nigeria" (PDF).
  16. ^ "Nigerian Constitution". Nigeria Law. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  17. ^ "The countries with the 10 largest Christian populations and the 10 largest Muslim populations". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  18. ^ "Nigeria Fact Sheet" (PDF). United States Embassy in Nigeria. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  19. ^ "Nigeria: The African giant". The Round Table. 50 (197): 55–63. 1959. doi:10.1080/00358535908452221.
  20. ^ Campbell, John (29 January 2020). "Perceptions of Corruption in Nigeria Remain High, According to NGO". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  21. ^ "A light shines on Nigerian corruption". The Christian Science Monitor. 16 October 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  22. ^ "Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) - The Nuclear Threat Initiative". Retrieved 19 October 2021.

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