Zambia

Coordinates: 15°S 30°E / 15°S 30°E / -15; 30

Republic of Zambia
Motto: 
"One Zambia, One Nation"
Anthem: "Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free"
Location of Zambia
Capital
and largest city
Lusaka
15°25′S 28°17′E / 15.417°S 28.283°E / -15.417; 28.283
Official languagesEnglish
Recognised regional languages
List
Ethnic groups
(2010[1])
List
Religion
Christianity (official)[2]
Demonym(s)Zambian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Hakainde Hichilema
Mutale Nalumango
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence 
27 June 1890
28 November 1899
29 January 1900
17 August 1911
1 August 1953
24 October 1964
5 January 2016
Area
• Total
752,617 km2 (290,587 sq mi)[3] (38th)
• Water (%)
1
Population
• 2021 estimate
19,473,125[4][5] (65th)
• 2010 census
13,092,666[6]
• Density
17.2/km2 (44.5/sq mi) (191st)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$75.857 billion[7]
• Per capita
$4,148[7]
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$23.946 billion[7]
• Per capita
$1,307[7]
Gini (2015)57.1[8]
high
HDI (2019)Decrease 0.584[9]
medium · 146th
CurrencyZambian kwacha (ZMW)
Time zoneUTC+2 (CAT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+260
ISO 3166 codeZM
Internet TLD.zm

Zambia (/ˈzæmbiə, ˈzɑːm-/), officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central, Southern and East Africa,[10] although it is typically referred to as being in Southern Africa.[11] Its neighbors are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west. The capital city of Zambia is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The nation's population of around 19.5 million, is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the north, the core economic hubs of the country.

Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. Following European explorers in the eighteenth century, the British colonised the region into the British protectorates of Barotseland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia comprising 73 tribes, towards the end of the nineteenth century. These were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.[12]

On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating closely with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Angola, and Namibia.[13] From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation" coined by Kaunda. Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of socio-economic development and government decentralisation. Zambia has since become a multi-party state and has experienced several peaceful transitions of power.

Zambia contains abundant natural resources, including minerals, wildlife, forestry, freshwater and arable land.[14] In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries.[15] The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is headquartered in Lusaka.

  1. ^ Census of Population and Housing National Analytical Report 2010 Archived 14 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine Central Statistical Office, Zambia
  2. ^ "Amended Constitution of Zambia". Government of Zambia. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  3. ^ United Nations Statistics Division. "Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). Retrieved 9 November 2007.
  4. ^ ""World Population Prospects 2022"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX). population.un.org ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  6. ^ Central Statistical Office, Government of Zambia. "2010 Census Population Summaries" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d "Zambia". International Monetary Fund.
  8. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  9. ^ Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  10. ^ Henderson, Ian (1970). "The Origins of Nationalism in East and Central Africa: The Zambian Case". The Journal of African History. 11 (4): 591–603. doi:10.1017/S0021853700010471. ISSN 0021-8537. JSTOR 180923.
  11. ^ "Zambia | Population, Capital, Language, Flag, & Map | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  12. ^ "History | Zambian High Commission". www.zambiapretoria.net. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  13. ^ Andy DeRoche, Kenneth Kaunda, the United States, and Southern Africa (London: Bloomsbury, 2016).
  14. ^ Karlyn Eckman (FAO, 2007).GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN FORESTRY IN AFRICA ZAMBIA.
  15. ^ Ngoma, Jumbe (18 December 2010). "World Bank President Praises Reforms In Zambia, Underscores Need For Continued Improvements In Policy And Governance". World Bank.

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