Philippines

Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122

Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas  (Filipino)
Motto: 
Maka-Diyos, Maka-tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa[1]
"For God, People, Nature and Country"
(Latin: Pro Deo Populi Natura et Patria)
Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
"Chosen Land"
Great Seal:
Great Seal of the Philippines
PHL orthographic.svg
Location Philippines ASEAN.svg
CapitalManila (de jure)
14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967
Metro Manila[a] (de facto)
Largest cityQuezon City
14°38′N 121°02′E / 14.633°N 121.033°E / 14.633; 121.033
Official languages
Recognized regional languages
National sign language
Filipino Sign Language
Other recognized languages[b]
Ethnic groups
(2010[5])
Religion
(2015)[5]
Demonym(s)Filipino
(masculine and neutral)
Filipina
(feminine)

Pinoy
(colloquial masculine and neutral)
Pinay
(colloquial feminine)

Philippine
(used for certain common nouns)
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Bongbong Marcos
Sara Duterte
Juan Miguel Zubiri
Martin Romualdez
Alexander Gesmundo
LegislatureCongress
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
from the United States
June 12, 1898
December 10, 1898
July 4, 1946
Area
• Total
300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) (72nd)
• Water (%)
0.61[6] (inland waters)
298,170 km2 (115,120 sq mi)
Population
• 2021 estimate
109,991,095[7]
• 2020 census
Neutral increase 109,035,343[8] (13th)
• Density
336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) (47th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.0 trillion[9] (29th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,061[9] (115th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $402.638 billion[9] (32nd)
• Per capita
Increase $3,646[9] (118th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 42.3[10]
medium · 44th
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.699[11]
medium · 116th
CurrencyPhilippine peso () (PHP)
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (PST)
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright[c]
Calling code+63
ISO 3166 codePH
Internet TLD.ph

The Philippines (/ˈfɪlɪpnz/ (listen); Filipino: Pilipinas),[14] officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[d] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean and consists of around 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest. It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The Philippines covers an area of 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) and, as of 2021, it had a population of around 109 million people,[7] making it the world's thirteenth-most populous country. The Philippines has diverse ethnicities and cultures throughout its islands. Manila is the country's capital, while the largest city is Quezon City; both lie within the urban area of Metro Manila.

Negritos, some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Adoption of animism, Hinduism and Islam established island-kingdoms called Kedatuan, Rajahnates, and Sultanates. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Spanish settlement through Mexico, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming ruled by the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. During this time, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while Filipino revolutionaries declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation, the Philippines became independent in 1946. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a decades-long dictatorship by a nonviolent revolution.

The Philippines is an emerging market and a newly industrialized country whose economy is transitioning from being agriculture centered to services and manufacturing centered. It is a founding member of the United Nations, WTO, ASEAN, the APEC forum, and the EAS. The location of the Philippines as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire that is close to the equator makes it prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and is home to a globally significant level of biodiversity.

  1. ^ "Republic Act No. 8491". Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  2. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 940, s. 1976". Manila: Malacanang. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  3. ^ "Quezon City Local Government – Background". Quezon City Local Government. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference 7 mother languages was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ a b Mapa, Dennis. "2021 Philippines in Figures" (PDF). PSA. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  6. ^ "East & Southeast Asia :: Philippines". The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. October 28, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  7. ^ a b Cudis, Christine (December 27, 2021). "PH 2021 population growth lowest in 7 decades". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved March 25, 2022.
  8. ^ "2020 Census of Population and Housing (2020 CPH) Population Counts Declared Official by the President". Philippine Statistics Authority.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook database: April 2021". International Monetary Fund. April 2021. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  10. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. September 8, 2022. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  12. ^ "Executive Order No. 34, s. 1945". Manila: Malacanang. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  13. ^ Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved February 22, 2009.
  14. ^ Santos, Bim (July 28, 2021). "Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino reverts to use of 'Pilipinas', does away with 'Filipinas'". The Philippine Star.


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