Republic of the Philippines
Republika ng Pilipinas (Filipino)
Maka-Diyos, Maka-tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa[1]
"For God, People, Nature, and Country"
Anthem: "Lupang Hinirang"
"Chosen Land"
CapitalManila (de jure)
Metro Manila[a] (de facto)
Largest cityQuezon City
Official languages
Recognized regional languages19 languages[4]
National sign language
Filipino Sign Language
Other recognized languages[b]
Spanish and Arabic
Ethnic groups
  • 6.4% Islam
  • 3.5% other / none

(colloquial neutral)
(colloquial feminine)

(adjective for certain common nouns)
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Bongbong Marcos
Sara Duterte
Migz Zubiri
Martin Romualdez
Alexander Gesmundo
House of Representatives
from the United States
June 12, 1898
• Cession
December 10, 1898
November 15, 1935
July 4, 1946
February 2, 1987
• Total
300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi)[7][8]: 15 [c] (72nd)
• Water (%)
0.61[9] (inland waters)
298,170 km2 (115,120 sq mi)
• 2020 census
• Density
336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) (37th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.278 trillion[10] (29th)
• Per capita
Increase $11,326[10] (118th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $435.675 billion[10] (34th)
• Per capita
Increase $3,859[10] (124th)
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 41.2[11]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.699[12]
medium · 116th
CurrencyPhilippine peso () (PHP)
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (PhST)
Driving sideright[13]
Calling code+63
ISO 3166 codePH

The Philippines (/ˈfɪlɪpnz/ ; Filipino: Pilipinas),[14] officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas),[d] is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. In the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of 7,641 islands which are broadly categorized in three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the south. It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. It is the world's twelfth-most-populous country, with diverse ethnicities and cultures. Manila is the country's capital, and its most populated city is Quezon City; both are within Metro Manila.

Negritos, the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by waves of Austronesian peoples. The adoption of Animism, Islam and Hinduism established island-kingdoms ruled by datus, rajas, and sultans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of King Philip II of Castile. Spanish settlement via New Spain, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming ruled by the Crown of Castile, as part of the Spanish Empire, for more than 300 years. Catholic Christianity became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. The Philippine Revolution began in 1896, which became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, and Filipino revolutionaries declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States controlling the territory until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. After the United States retook the Philippines from the Japanese, the Philippines became independent in 1946. The country has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a decades-long dictatorship in a nonviolent revolution.

The Philippines is an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, whose economy is transitioning from being agricultural to service- and manufacturing-centered. It is a founding member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, ASEAN, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit; it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and a major non-NATO ally of the United States. Its location as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes it prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The Philippines has a variety of natural resources and a globally-significant level of biodiversity.

  1. ^ Republic Act No. 8491 (February 12, 1998). Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines. Metro Manila, Philippines: Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2014.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Presidential Decree No. 940, s. 1976 (May 29, 1976). Establishing Manila as the Capital of the Philippines and as the Permanent Seat of the National Government. Manila, Philippines: Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 4, 2015.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ "Quezon City Local Government – Background". Quezon City Local Government. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference GMA-DepEd-7-Languages was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference GovPH-OfficialLanguage was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ a b Mapa, Claire Dennis S. 2021 Philippines in Figures (PDF) (Booklet). Philippine Statistics Authority. pp. 23–24. ISSN 1655-2539. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2022. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  7. ^ "Land Use and Land Classification of the Philippines" (PDF). Infomapper. National Mapping and Resource Information Authority. 1 (2): 10. December 1991. ISSN 0117-1674. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 22, 2021.
  8. ^ Boquet, Yves (2017). The Philippine Archipelago. Springer Geography. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-51926-5. Retrieved April 25, 2023.
  9. ^ "Philippines". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. June 7, 2023. Retrieved June 19, 2023.
  10. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Philippines)". International Monetary Fund. October 10, 2023. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  11. ^ "Highlights of the Preliminary Results of the 2021 Annual Family Income and Expenditure Survey" (Press release). PSA. Archived from the original on May 16, 2023. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  12. ^ Human Development Report 2021/22: Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping our Future in a Transforming World (PDF) (Report). New York, N.Y.: United Nations Development Programme. September 8, 2022. Table 1. ISBN 978-92-1-001640-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 8, 2022. Retrieved September 8, 2022.
  13. ^ Philippine Yearbook (1978 ed.). Manila, Philippines: National Economic and Development Authority, National Census and Statistics Office. 1978. p. 716.
  14. ^ Santos, Bim (July 28, 2021). "Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino reverts to use of 'Pilipinas', does away with 'Filipinas'". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on July 28, 2021.

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