Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia (Indonesian)
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese)
"Unity in Diversity"
Anthem: Indonesia Raya
"Great Indonesia"
National ideology:
(lit.'Five principles')
and largest city
6°10′S 106°49′E / 6.167°S 106.817°E / -6.167; 106.817
Official languageIndonesian
Regional languagesOver 700 languages[1]
Ethnic groups
Over 1,300 ethnic groups[2]
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Joko Widodo
Ma'ruf Amin
Puan Maharani
Muhammad Syarifuddin
LegislaturePeople's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
Regional Representative Council (DPD)
People's Representative Council (DPR)
from the Netherlands
17 August 1945
27 December 1949
• Land
1,904,569[4] km2 (735,358 sq mi) (14th)
• Q2 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 279,118,866[5] (4th)
• 2020 census
• Density
143/km2 (370.4/sq mi) (90th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $4.393 trillion[7] (7th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,835[7] (98th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.417 trillion[7] (16th)
• Per capita
Increase $5,108[7] (112th)
Gini (2022)Steady 37.9[8]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.705[9]
high · 114th
CurrencyIndonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
Time zoneUTC+7 to +9 (various)
Date formatDD/MM/YYYY
Driving sideleft
Calling code+62
ISO 3166 codeID

Indonesia,[a] officially the Republic of Indonesia,[b] is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest island country and the 14th-largest country by area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). With over 279 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

Indonesia is a presidential republic with an elected legislature. It has 38 provinces, of which nine have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area. Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the seventh century when the Srivijaya and later Majapahit Kingdoms traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars later brought Islam, and European powers fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratisation process, and periods of rapid economic growth.

Indonesia consists of thousands of distinct native ethnic and hundreds of linguistic groups, with Javanese being the largest. A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, cultural diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The economy of Indonesia is the world's 16th-largest by nominal GDP and the 7th-largest by PPP. It is the world's third-largest democracy, a regional power and is considered a middle power in global affairs. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, G20, and a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit, D-8 and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference ethnologue was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ Na'im, Akhsan; Syaputra, Hendry (2010). "Nationality, Ethnicity, Religion, and Languages of Indonesians" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  3. ^ "Jumlah Penduduk Menurut Agama" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Religious Affairs. 31 August 2022. Retrieved 29 October 2023. Muslim 241 Million (87), Christianity 29.1 Million (10.5), Hindu 4.69 million (1.7), Buddhist 2.02 million (0.7), Folk, Confucianism, and others 192.311 (0.1), Total 277.749.673 Million
  4. ^ "UN Statistics" (PDF). United Nations. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  5. ^ "Indonesian Population June 2023". Ministry of Home Affairs (Indonesia). Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2020census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Indonesia)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  8. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Indonesia". World Bank. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  9. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  10. ^ "INDONESIA | Meaning & Definition for UK English |". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  11. ^ "Indonesia". Dictionary. Retrieved 7 May 2022.

Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).

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