Indonesia

Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120

Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)
Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika  (Kawi)
"Unity in Diversity"
National ideology: Pancasila[1][2]
Anthem: Indonesia Raya
"Great Indonesia"
Indonesia (orthographic projection).svg
Location Indonesia ASEAN.svg
Capital
and largest city
Jakarta
6°10′S 106°49′E / 6.167°S 106.817°E / -6.167; 106.817
Official language
and national language
Indonesian
Regional languagesOver 700 languages[3]
Ethnic groups
Over 1,300 ethnic groups[4]
Religion
(2018)[5]
Demonym(s)Indonesian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Joko Widodo
Ma'ruf Amin
Puan Maharani
Muhammad Syarifuddin
LegislaturePeople's Consultative Assembly (MPR)
Regional Representative Council (DPD)
House of Representatives (DPR)
Independence 
from the Netherlands and Japan
17 August 1945
27 December 1949
Area
• Land
1,904,569[6] km2 (735,358 sq mi) (14th)
4.85
Population
• 2022 estimate
277,329,163[7] (4th)
• 2020 census
270,203,917[8]
• Density
143/km2 (370.4/sq mi) (90th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase US$4.00 trillion[9] (7th)
• Per capita
Increase US$14,535[9] (96th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase US$1.29 trillion[9] (17th)
• Per capita
Increase US$4,691[9] (104th)
Gini (2021)Negative increase 37.3[10]
medium
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.705[11]
high · 114th
CurrencyIndonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)
Time zoneUTC+7 to +9 (various)
Date formatDD/MM/YYYY
Driving sideleft
Calling code+62
ISO 3166 codeID
Internet TLD.id

Indonesia,[a] officially the Republic of Indonesia,[b] is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and the 14th-largest country by area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). With over 275 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

Indonesia is a presidential republic with an elected legislature. It has 37 provinces, of which eight have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area. Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands). Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while Christianity was spread by European missionaries. Although the Portuguese, the French and British also ruled at some point, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. The concept of "Indonesia" as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century, culminating later in the proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.

Indonesia consists of thousands of distinct native ethnic and hundreds of linguistic groups, with Javanese being the largest. A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, cultural diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The economy of Indonesia is the world's 17th-largest by nominal GDP and the 7th-largest by PPP. It is a regional power and is considered a middle power in global affairs. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, G20, and a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit, D-8 and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

  1. ^ "Pancasila". U.S. Library of Congress. 3 February 2017. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  2. ^ Vickers 2005, p. 117.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference ethnologue was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Na'im, Akhsan; Syaputra, Hendry (2010). "Nationality, Ethnicity, Religion, and Languages of Indonesians" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Statistics Indonesia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  5. ^ "Statistik Umat Menurut Agama di Indonesia" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Religious Affairs. 15 May 2018. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  6. ^ "UN Statistics" (PDF). United Nations. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 31 October 2007.
  7. ^ "The World Factbook: Indonesia". Central Intelligence Agency. September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2020census was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  9. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  10. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Indonesia". World Bank. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  12. ^ "INDONESIA | Meaning & Definition for UK English | Lexico.com". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  13. ^ "Indonesia". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 7 May 2022.


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