Malaysia

Malaysia
Motto: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu[1]
"Unity is Strength"
Anthem: Negaraku
"My Country"
Malaysia (orthographic projection).svg
Location Malaysia ASEAN.svg
Location of Malaysia (dark green)

– in Asia (dark gray & white)
– in ASEAN (dark gray)

Capital
Largest cityKuala Lumpur
Official language
Malay[a][b][c]
Recognised languageEnglish[c]
Ethnic groups
See below
Religion
See below
Demonym(s)Malaysian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional elective monarchy
• Monarch
Abdullah
Ismail Sabri Yaakob
LegislatureParliament
Dewan Negara (Senate)
Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)
Independence 
31 August 1957[2]
22 July 1963
31 August 1963[3]
16 September 1963
Area
• Total
330,803 km2 (127,724 sq mi) (67th)
• Water (%)
0.3
Population
• Q1 2020 estimate
Neutral increase 32,730,000[4] (43rd)
• 2020 census
32,447,385[5]
• Density
98/km2 (253.8/sq mi) (116th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.089 trillion [6] (31th)
• Per capita
Increase $32,901[6] (54th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $439.373 billion[6] (34th)
• Per capita
Increase $13,268[6] (66th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 41[7]
medium
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.803[8]
very high · 62nd
CurrencyRinggit (RM) (MYR)
Time zoneUTC+8 (MST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+60
ISO 3166 codeMY
Internet TLD.my

Malaysia (/məˈlziə, -ʒə/ (listen) mə-LAY-zee-ə, -⁠zhə; Malay: [məlejsiə]) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital, largest city and the seat of the legislative branch of the federal government. The nearby planned capital of Putrajaya is the administrative capital, which represents the seat of both the executive branch (Cabinet, federal ministries and agencies) and the judicial branch of the federal government. With a population of over 32 million, Malaysia is the world's 45th-most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia is in Tanjung Piai. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, home to numerous endemic species.

Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate. Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948 and achieved independence on 31 August 1957. The independent Malaya united with the then British crown colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In August 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation and became a separate independent country.[9]

The country is multiethnic and multicultural, which has a significant effect on its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Chinese, Indians, and indigenous peoples. The country's official language is Malaysian Malay, a standard form of the Malay language. English remains an active second language. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. The government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is an elected monarch, chosen from among the nine state sultans every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister.

After independence, the Malaysian GDP grew at an average of 6.5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism, commerce and medical tourism. Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked third-largest in Southeast Asia and 33rd-largest in the world.[10] It is a founding member of ASEAN, EAS, OIC and a member of APEC, the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned Movement.

  1. ^ "Malaysian Flag and Coat of Arms". Malaysian Government. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  2. ^ Mackay, Derek (2005). Eastern Customs: The Customs Service in British Malaya and the Opium Trade. The Radcliffe Press. pp. 240–. ISBN 978-1-85043-844-1.
  3. ^ "31 Ogos 1963, Hari kemerdekaan Sabah yang rasmi". AWANI. 14 May 2021. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  4. ^ "Demographic Statistics First Quarter 2020, Malaysia". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  5. ^ "Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2020". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 48. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  7. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  9. ^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-107-50718-0.
  10. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 15 October 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.


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