Motto: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu[1]
برسکوتو برتمبه موتو (Jawi)
"Unity is Strength"
Anthem: Negaraku
"My Country"
Location of Malaysia (dark green)

– in Asia (dark gray & white)
– in ASEAN (dark gray)

and largest city
Kuala Lumpur[fn 1]
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683
Administrative centerPutrajaya[fn 2]
2°56′N 101°42′E / 2.933°N 101.700°E / 2.933; 101.700
Official languagesMalay[a][b][c]
Recognised languageEnglish[c]
Ethnic groups
(2021)[2] [3]
GovernmentFederal parliamentary constitutional elective monarchy
Anwar Ibrahim
Wan Junaidi Tuanku Jaafar
Johari Abdul
Tengku Maimun Tuan Mat
Dewan Negara (Senate)
Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)
31 August 1957[6]
22 July 1963
31 August 1963[7]
16 September 1963
• Total
330,803[8] km2 (127,724 sq mi) (67th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
33,200,000[9] (43rd)
• 2020 census
• Density
101/km2 (261.6/sq mi) (116th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.225 trillion[11] (31st)
• Per capita
Increase $37,082[11] (55th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $430.895 billion[11] (36th)
• Per capita
Increase $13,034[11] (67th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 41.2[12]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.803[13]
very high · 62nd
CurrencyMalaysian ringgit (MYR)
Time zoneUTC+8 (MST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+60
ISO 3166 codeMY

Malaysia (UK: /məˈlziə/ mə-LAY-zee-ə; US: /məˈlʒə/ mə-LAY-zhə; Malay: [malɛjsia] ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions: Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia, as well as a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital, the country's largest city, and the seat of the legislative branch of the federal government. Putrajaya is the administrative centre, which represents the seat of both the executive branch (the Cabinet, federal ministries, and federal agencies) and the judicial branch of the federal government. With a population of over 33 million, the country is the world's 43rd-most populous country. The country is one of 17 megadiverse countries and is home to numerous endemic species. Tanjung Piai is the southernmost point of continental Eurasia. The country is located in the tropics.

The country has its origins in the Malay kingdoms, which, from the 18th century on, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate. During World War Two, British Malaya, along with other nearby British and American colonies, was occupied by the Empire of Japan.[14] Following three years of occupation, Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946 and then restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948. The country achieved independence on 31 August 1957. On 16 September 1963, independent Malaya united with the then British crown colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore to become Malaysia. In August 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation and became a separate, independent country.[15]

The country is multiethnic and multicultural, which has a significant effect on its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with minorities of Chinese, Indians, and indigenous peoples. The official language is Malaysian Malay, a standard form of the Malay language. English remains an active second language. While recognising Islam as the official religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. The government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is an elected monarch, chosen from among the nine state sultans every five years. The head of government is the prime minister.

After independence, the gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average rate of 6.5% per year for almost 50 years. The country's economy has traditionally been driven by its natural resources, but it is expanding into commerce, tourism, and medical tourism. The country has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fifth-largest in Southeast Asia and 36th-largest in the world. The country is a founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the East Asia Summit (EAS), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the Commonwealth, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).

  1. ^ "Malaysian Flag and Coat of Arms". Malaysian Government. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  2. ^ "Minister: Census shows Malaysia's oldest man and woman aged 120 and 118; preliminary census findings to be released in Feb 2022". Malaymail. 17 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  3. ^ Department of Statistics Malaysia 2021.
  4. ^ "The States, Religion and Law of the Federation" (PDF). Constitution of Malaysia. Judicial Appointments Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017. Islam is the religion of the Federation; but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony in any part of the Federation.
  5. ^ "Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristic Report 2020". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 14 February 2020.
  6. ^ Mackay, Derek (2005). Eastern Customs: The Customs Service in British Malaya and the Opium Trade. The Radcliffe Press. pp. 240–. ISBN 978-1-85043-844-1.
  7. ^ "31 Ogos 1963, Hari kemerdekaan Sabah yang rasmi". AWANI. 14 May 2021. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  8. ^ "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2023.
  9. ^ "Malaysia". The World Factbook (2023 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  10. ^ "Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2020". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 48. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Malaysia)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  12. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  13. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  14. ^ "Malaya in World War II". World War Two Database. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  15. ^ Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-107-50718-0.

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