Coordinates: 15°N 101°E / 15°N 101°E / 15; 101

Kingdom of Thailand
  • ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai)
  • Ratcha-anachak Thai
Anthem: เพลงชาติไทย
"Thai National Anthem"
Royal anthem: สรรเสริญพระบารมี
"Glorify His Prestige"
Thailand (orthographic projection).svg
Location Thailand ASEAN.svg
Location of Thailand (green)

– in Asia (light green & dark grey)
– in ASEAN (light green)

and largest city
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483
Official language
and national language
Spoken languagesThai, Isan, Lanna Dambro, Karen, Pattani Malay, Bangkok Malay
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Thai, Siamese
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary semi-democratic[3] constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
(Rama X)
Prayut Chan-o-cha
Prawit Wongsuwan
LegislatureNational Assembly
House of Representatives
6 April 1782
24 June 1932
6 April 2017
• Total
513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) (50th)
• Water (%)
0.4 (2,230 km2)
• 2021 UN estimate
Neutral increase 71,600,000[4] (20th)
• 2010 census
64,785,909[5] (21st)
• Density
132.1/km2 (342.1/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.475 trillion[6] (23rd)
• Per capita
Increase $21,057[6] (73rd)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $522.012 billion[6] (28rd)
• Per capita
Increase $7,449[6] (89th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 35.0[7]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.800[8]
very high · 66th
CurrencyBaht (฿) (THB)
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (BE)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+66
ISO 3166 codeTH
Internet TLD

Thailand[a] (/ˈtlænd, ˈtlənd/ TY-land, TY-lənd), historically known as Siam[b][9][10] (/sˈæm, ˈsæm/) and officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Indochinese Peninsula, spanning 513,120 square kilometres (198,120 sq mi), with a population of almost 70 million.[11] The country is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the extremity of Myanmar. Thailand also shares maritime borders with Vietnam to the southeast, and Indonesia and India to the southwest. Bangkok is the nation's capital and largest city.

Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as the Kingdoms of Ngoenyang, Sukhothai, Lan Na and Ayutthaya, which also rivalled each other. European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, which became a regional power by the end of the 15th century. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign, gradually declining thereafter until being ultimately destroyed in the Burmese–Siamese War. Taksin quickly reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom. He was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the current Chakri dynasty. Throughout the era of Western imperialism in Asia, Siam remained the only nation in the region to avoid colonization by foreign powers, although it was often forced to cede both territory, trade and legal concessions in unequal treaties.[12] The Siamese system of government was centralised and transformed into a modern unitary absolute monarchy in the reign of Chulalongkorn. In World War I, Siam sided with the Allies, a political decision made in order to amend the unequal treaties. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, it became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to Thailand, becoming an ally of Japan in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup under Field Marshal Sarit Thanarat revived the monarchy's historically influential role in politics. Thailand became a major ally of the United States, and played an anti-communist role in the region as a member of the failed SEATO, but from 1975 sought to improve relations with Communist China and Thailand's neighbours.

Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. Since the 2000s the country has been caught in continual bitter political conflict between supporters and opponents of Thaksin Shinawatra, which resulted in two coups (in 2006 and 2014), along with the establishment of its current constitution, a nominally democratic government after the 2019 Thai general election, and large pro-democracy protests in 2020–2021 which included unprecedented demands to reform the monarchy. Since 2019, it has been nominally a parliamentary constitutional monarchy; in practice, however, structural advantages in the constitution have ensured the military's hold on power.[13]

Thailand is a middle power in global affairs and a founding member of ASEAN, and ranks very high in the Human Development Index. It has the second-largest economy in Southeast Asia and the 22nd-largest in the world by PPP. Thailand is classified as a newly industrialised economy, with manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism as leading sectors.[14][15]

  1. ^ "Thailand", The World Factbook.
  2. ^ "Population by religion, region and area, 2018". NSO. Archived from the original on 24 April 2021. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations".
  5. ^ (in Thai) National Statistics Office, "100th anniversary of population censuses in Thailand: Population and housing census 2010: 11th census of Thailand" Archived 12 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  7. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  9. ^ "Siam". Unabridged (Online). n.d. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  10. ^ "Siam definition and meaning". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  11. ^ "Thailandometers".
  12. ^ Nuchkoom Smith, Nucharee; Smith, Robert Brian (1 October 2019). "Has Thailand learnt any Lessons from the Bowring Treaty and the Treaty of Amity?" (PDF). Athens Journal of Law. 5 (4): 405–418. doi:10.30958/ajl.5-4-3. S2CID 211453326.
  13. ^
  14. ^ Thailand and the World Bank Archived 16 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine, World Bank on Thailand country overview.
  15. ^ The Guardian, Country profile: Thailand, 25 April 2009.

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