Malay language

Malay
Bahasa Melayu
بهاس ملايو
ꤷꥁꤼ ꤸꥍꤾꤿꥈ
Pronunciation[ba.ha.sa mə.la.ju]
Native toBrunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Mindanao, South Thailand, Tanintharyi Region
EthnicityMalays
(see also Malayophones)
SpeakersL1 – 77 million (2007)[1]
Total (L1 and L2): 200–290 million (2009)[2]
Early forms
Standard forms
Official status
Official language in
Recognised minority
language in

 Sri Lanka (Sri Lankan Malay is a creole language spoken by the Sri Lankan Malays, Sinhalese, and Hambantota)
 Thailand (as Pattani Malay and Bangkok Malay)
 Philippines (as a trade language with Malaysia and in Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and Balabac, Palawan)
 Myanmar (Kedah Malay is mostly spoken by Burmese Malays and Moken people)

 Australia (Christmas Island & Cocos Island (as Cocos Malay)
Regulated by
Language codes
ISO 639-1ms
ISO 639-2may (B)
msa (T)
ISO 639-3msa – inclusive code
Individual codes:
zlm – Malay (individual language)
kxd – Brunei Malay
ind – Indonesian
zsm – Standard Malay
jax – Jambi Malay
meo – Kedah Malay
kvr – Kerinci
xmm – Manado Malay
min – Minangkabau
mui – Musi
zmi – Negeri Sembilan
max – North Moluccan Malay
mfa – Kelantan-Pattani Malay
coa – Cocos Malay
bjn – Banjarese
bew – Betawi
msi – Sabah Malay
mqg – Kota Bangun Kutai Malay
Glottologindo1326  partial match
Linguasphere31-MFA-a
Malayophone world.svg
Countries where Malay is spoken
  Official language
  Recognized minority or trade language
A teenager speaks Kedah Malay
An Indonesian speaker
A Malay speaker

Malay (/məˈl/;[5] Malay: Bahasa Melayu, Jawi: بهاس ملايو, Rencong: ꤷꥁꤼ ꤸꥍꤾꤿꥈ) is an Austronesian language officially spoken in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, and Singapore, and unofficially spoken in East Timor and parts of Thailand and the Philippines. It is spoken by 290 million people[6] (around 260 million in Indonesia alone in its own literary standard named "Indonesian")[7] across Maritime Southeast Asia.

As the bahasa kebangsaan or bahasa nasional ("national language") of several states, Standard Malay has various official names. In Malaysia, it is designated as either Bahasa Melayu Malaysia ("Malaysian Malay") or also Bahasa Melayu ("Malay language"). In Singapore and Brunei, it is called Bahasa Melayu ("Malay language"). In Indonesia, an autonomous normative variety called Bahasa Indonesia ("Indonesian language") is designated the bahasa persatuan/pemersatu ("unifying language" or lingua franca). However, in areas of Central to Southern Sumatra, where vernacular varieties of Malay are indigenous, Indonesians refer to the language as bahasa Melayu, and consider it to be one of their regional languages.

Malay, also called Court Malay, was the literary standard of the pre-colonial Malacca and Johor Sultanates and so the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor or Riau Malay (or various combinations of those names) to distinguish it from the various other Malayic languages. According to Ethnologue 16, several of the Malayic varieties they currently list as separate languages, including the Orang Asli varieties of Peninsular Malay, are so closely related to standard Malay that they may prove to be dialects. There are also several Malay trade and creole languages based on a lingua franca derived from Classical Malay as well as Macassar Malay, which appears to be a mixed language.

  1. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. ^ Uli, Kozok (10 March 2012). "How many people speak Indonesian". University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved 20 October 2012. James T. Collins (Bahasa Sanskerta dan Bahasa Melayu, Jakarta: KPG 2009) gives a conservative estimate of approximately 200 million, and a maximum estimate of 250 million speakers of Malay (Collins 2009, p. 17).
  3. ^ "Kedah MB defends use of Jawi on signboards". The Star. 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012.
  4. ^ "East Timor Languages". www.easttimorgovernment.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  5. ^ Bauer, Laurie (2007). The Linguistic Student's Handbook. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
  6. ^ 10 million in Malaysia, 5 million in Indonesia as "Malay" plus 260 million as "Indonesian", etc.
  7. ^ Wardhana, Dian Eka Chandra (2021). "Indonesian as the Language of ASEAN During the New Life Behavior Change 2021". Journal of Social Work and Science Education. 1 (3): 266–280. doi:10.52690/jswse.v1i3.114. Retrieved 29 January 2021.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia · View on Wikipedia

Developed by Nelliwinne