Kenya

Coordinates: 1°N 38°E / 1°N 38°E / 1; 38

Republic of Kenya
Jamhuri ya Kenya  (Swahili)
Motto: "Harambee"
(English: "Let us all pull together")
Anthem: "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"
(English: "O God of all creation")
Kenya (orthographic projection).svg
Location Kenya AU Africa.svg
Capital
and largest city
Nairobi
1°16′S 36°48′E / 1.267°S 36.800°E / -1.267; 36.800
Official languages
National languageSwahili[1]
Ethnic groups
(2019[2])
Religion
(2019[2])
Demonym(s)Kenyan
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
William Ruto
Rigathi Gachagua
Amason Kingi
Moses Wetangula
Martha Koome
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Independence 
• Dominion
12 December 1963
• Republic
12 December 1964
Area
• Total
580,367 km2 (224,081 sq mi)[3][4] (48th)
• Water (%)
2.3
Population
• 2021 estimate
54,985,698[5] (29th)
• 2019 census
47,564,296[6]
• Density
78/km2 (202.0/sq mi) (124th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$333.268 billion[7]
• Per capita
$6,061 [8]
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$123.827 billion[8]
• Per capita
$2,252[8]
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 40.8[9]
medium
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.575[10]
medium · 152nd
CurrencyKenyan shilling (KES)
Time zoneUTC+3 (East Africa Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+254
ISO 3166 codeKE
Internet TLD.ke
According to the CIA, estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of mortality because of AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex, than would otherwise be expected.[11]

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern Africa. At 580,367 square kilometres (224,081 sq mi), Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by area. With a population of more than 47.6 million in the 2019 census,[12] Kenya is the 29th most populous country in the world.[6] Kenya's capital and largest city is Nairobi, while its oldest, currently second largest city, and first capital is the coastal city of Mombasa. Kisumu City is the third-largest city and also an inland port on Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Nakuru and Eldoret. As of 2020, Kenya is the third-largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa after Nigeria and South Africa.[13] Kenya is bordered by South Sudan to the northwest, Ethiopia to the north, Somalia to the east, Uganda to the west, Tanzania to the south, and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. Its geography, climate and population vary widely, ranging from cold snow-capped mountaintops (Batian, Nelion and Point Lenana on Mount Kenya) with vast surrounding forests, wildlife and fertile agricultural regions to temperate climates in western and rift valley counties and dry less fertile arid and semi-arid areas and absolute deserts (Chalbi Desert and Nyiri Desert).

Kenya's earliest inhabitants were hunter-gatherers, like the present-day Hadza people.[14][15] According to archaeological dating of associated artifacts and skeletal material, Cushitic speakers first settled in Kenya's lowlands between 3,200 and 1,300 BC, a phase known as the Lowland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic. Nilotic-speaking pastoralists (ancestral to Kenya's Nilotic speakers) began migrating from present-day South Sudan into Kenya around 500 BC.[16] Bantu people settled at the coast and the interior between 250 BC and 500 AD.[17] European contact began in 1500 AD with the Portuguese Empire, and effective colonisation of Kenya began in the 19th century during the European exploration of the interior. Modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in 1895 and the subsequent Kenya Colony, which began in 1920. Numerous disputes between the UK and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution, which began in 1952, and the declaration of independence in 1963. After independence, Kenya remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The current constitution was adopted in 2010 and replaced the 1963 independence constitution.

Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic, in which elected officials represent the people and the president is the head of state and government.[18] Kenya is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, COMESA, International Criminal Court, as well as other international organisations. With a GNI of 1,840,[19] Kenya is a lower-middle-income economy. Kenya's economy is the largest in eastern and central Africa,[20][21] with Nairobi serving as a major regional commercial hub.[21] Agriculture is the largest sector: tea and coffee are traditional cash crops, while fresh flowers are a fast-growing export. The service industry is also a major economic driver, particularly tourism. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa.[22] Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the European Union.[23]

  1. ^ a b Constitution (2009) Art. 7 [National, official and other languages] "(1) The national language of the Republic is Swahili. (2) The official languages of the Republic are Swahili and English. (3) The State shall–-–- (a) promote and protect the diversity of language of the people of Kenya; and (b) promote the development and use of indigenous languages, Kenyan Sign language, Braille and other communication formats and technologies accessible to persons with disabilities."
  2. ^ a b "2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume IV: Distribution of Population by Socio-Economic Characteristics". Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  3. ^ "Demographic Yearbook – Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 August 2020. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  4. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". unstats.un.org. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  5. ^ "Kenya Population Growth Rate 1950-2021". Macrotrends.net. Archived from the original on 27 May 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b "2019 Kenya Population and Housing Census Results". Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. 4 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  7. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (valuation of Kenya GDP)". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  9. ^ "Gini index". World Bank Group. 2019. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  10. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  11. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  12. ^ "2019 KENYA POPULATION AND HOUSING CENSUS - POPULATION BY COUNTY AND SUB COUNTY - Kenya Data Portal". kenya.opendataforafrica.org. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  13. ^ Reporter, Standard. "Kenya now third-largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa". The Standard. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  14. ^ "African Hunter-Gatherers: Survival, History and Politics of Identity" (PDF). repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  15. ^ "The East African Bushmen". researchgate.net. Archived from the original on 9 January 2022. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  16. ^ Cite error: The named reference EhretCHS was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  17. ^ "Wonders Of The African World". pbs. Archived from the original on 19 October 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  18. ^ "Victorian Electronic Democracy - Final Report - Table of ContentsVictorian Electronic Democracy - Final Report - Glossary". 13 December 2007. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  19. ^ "GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) - Kenya". worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  20. ^ Ethiopia GDP purchasing power 2010: 86 billion Archived 14 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Imf.org. 14 September 2006.
  21. ^ a b Kenya GDP purchasing power 2010: 66 Billion Archived 11 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Imf.org. 14 September 2006.
  22. ^ Maxwell, Daniel, and Ben Watkins. "Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages." Disasters 27.1 (2003): 72-90.
  23. ^ Mwangi S. Kimenyi; Francis M. Mwega; Njuguna S. Ndung'u (May 2016). "The African Lions: Kenya country case study" (PDF). The Brookings Institution. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.

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