Republic of Ghana
Gaana Adehyeman  (Akan)
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
Location of Ghana
and largest city
5°33′N 0°12′W / 5.550°N 0.200°W / 5.550; -0.200
Official languagesEnglish[1][2]
Recognised national languages
Ethnic groups
(2021 census[3])
(2021 census[3])
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Nana Akufo-Addo
Mahamudu Bawumia
Alban Bagbin
Kwasi Anin-Yeboah
Independence from the United Kingdom
• Dominion
6 March 1957
• Republic
1 July 1960
• Total
238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi) (80th)
• Water (%)
4.61 (11,000 km2; 4,247 mi2)
• 2022 estimate
32,103,042[4] (47th)
• 2021 census
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (103rd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$226 billion[6]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$81.625  billion[6]
• Per capita
Gini (2016)Negative increase 43.5[7]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.611[8]
medium · 138th
CurrencyCedi (GHS)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+233
ISO 3166 codeGH

Ghana (/ˈɡɑːnə/ (listen)), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa.[9] It abuts the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing borders with Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and Togo in the east.[10] Ghana covers an area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), spanning diverse biomes that range from coastal savannas to tropical rainforests. With nearly 31 million inhabitants (according to 2021 census), Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa, after Nigeria.[11] The capital and largest city is Accra; other major cities are Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.

The first permanent state in present-day Ghana was the Bono state of the 11th century.[12] Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful were the Kingdom of Dagbon in the north[13] and the Ashanti Empire in the south.[14] Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by numerous other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of colonisation, Ghana's current borders took shape, encompassing four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland. These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations on 6 March 1957, becoming the first colony in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve sovereignty.[15][16][17] Ghana subsequently became influential in decolonisation efforts and the Pan-African movement.[18]

Ghana is a multi-ethnic country with a diverse population, linguistic and religious groups;[19] while the Akan are the largest ethnic group, they constitute only a plurality. The majority of Ghanaians are Christian (71.3%), with close to a fifth being Muslim and a tenth practising traditional faiths or reporting no religion.[3] Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is both head of state and head of government.[20] Since 1993, it has maintained one of the freest and most stable governments on the continent and performs relatively well in metrics of healthcare, economic growth, and human development.[18] Ghana consequently enjoys significant influence in West Africa[21] and is highly integrated in international affairs, being a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Group of 24, and the Commonwealth of Nations.[22]

  1. ^ "Language and Religion". Ghana Embassy. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2017. English is the official language of Ghana and is universally used in schools in addition to nine other local languages. The most widely spoken local languages are Dagbanli, Ewe, Ga and Twi.
  2. ^ "Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Government of Ghana. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  3. ^ a b c "2021 PHC General Report Vol 3C, Background Characteristics" (PDF). Ghana Statistical Service.
  4. ^ "Ghana Population (2022) – Worldometer".
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ a b c d "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  7. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  8. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  9. ^ "Ghana country profile". BBC News. 11 December 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  10. ^ Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-8065-2189-9.
  11. ^ Ghana a country to study. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. 1995. p. 63.
  12. ^ Meyerowitz, Eva L. R. (1975). The Early History of the Akan States of Ghana. Red Candle Press. ISBN 9780608390352.
  13. ^ Danver, Steven L (10 March 2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-317-46400-6.
  14. ^ "Asante Kingdom". Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden. 15 June 2002. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  15. ^ Video: A New Nation: Gold Coast becomes Ghana In Ceremony, 1957/03/07 (1957). Universal Newsreel. 1957. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  16. ^ "First For Sub-Saharan Africa". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 November 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  17. ^ "Exploring Africa – Decolonization". Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  18. ^ a b Ateku, Abdul-Jalilu. "Ghana is 60: An African success story with tough challenges ahead". The Conversation. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  19. ^ "2020 Population Projection by Sex, 2010–2020". Ghana Statistical Service. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  20. ^ CIA World FactBook. "Ghana". CIA World FactBook. CIA World FactBook. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference South America and West Africa was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ "Ghana-US relations". United States Department of State. 13 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2013.

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