Lithuania

Republic of Lithuania
Lietuvos Respublika  (Lithuanian)
Anthem: 
Tautiška giesmė
"National Hymn"
EU-Lithuania.svg
Lithuania in the world (W3).svg
Location of Lithuania (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Vilnius
54°41′N 25°19′E / 54.683°N 25.317°E / 54.683; 25.317
Official languagesLithuanian[1]
Ethnic groups
(2021[2])
Religion
(2021[3])
Demonym(s)Lithuanian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic[4][5][6][7]
• President
Gitanas Nausėda
Ingrida Šimonytė
Viktorija Čmilytė-Nielsen
LegislatureSeimas
Formation
9 March 1009
1236
• Coronation of Mindaugas
6 July 1253
2 February 1386
• Commonwealth created
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
16 February 1918
11 March 1990
• Admitted to NATO
29 March 2004
• Joined the EU
1 May 2004
Area
• Total
65,300 km2 (25,200 sq mi) (121st)
• Water (%)
1.98 (2015)[8]
Population
• 2022 estimate
Increase 2,835,988[9] (137th)
• Density
43/km2 (111.4/sq mi) (138th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $129 billion[10] (87th)
• Per capita
Increase $46,479[10] (37th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $69 billion[10] (81st)
• Per capita
Increase $25,015[11] (52nd)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 35.1[12]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.882[13]
very high · 34th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Date formatyyyy/mm/dd (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+370
ISO 3166 codeLT
Internet TLD.lta
  1. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 Lithuania (/ˌlɪθjuˈniə/ (listen);[14] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of Europe.[a] It is one of three Baltic states and lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. Lithuania shares land borders with Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Russia to the southwest.[b] It has a maritime border with Sweden to the west on the Baltic Sea. Lithuania covers an area of 65,300 km2 (25,200 sq mi), with a population of 2.8 million. Its capital and largest city is Vilnius; other major cities are Kaunas and Klaipėda. Lithuanians belong to the ethno-linguistic group of the Balts and speak Lithuanian, one of only a few living Baltic languages.

For millennia the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, Lithuanian lands were united by Mindaugas, becoming king and founding the Kingdom of Lithuania on 6 July 1253. In the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe;[20] present-day Lithuania, Belarus, most of Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were all lands of the Grand Duchy. The Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were in a de facto personal union from 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, who was crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighbouring countries dismantled it in 1772–1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. As World War I ended, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, founding the modern Republic of Lithuania. In World War II, Lithuania was occupied first by the Soviet Union and then by Nazi Germany. Towards the end of the war in 1944, when the Germans were retreating, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. Lithuanian armed resistance to the Soviet occupation lasted until the early 1950s. On 11 March 1990, a year before the formal dissolution of the Soviet Union, Lithuania passed the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania, becoming the first Soviet republic to proclaim its independence.[21]

Lithuania is a developed country, with a high income advanced economy; ranking very high in the Human Development Index. It ranks favourably in terms of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance, and peacefulness. Lithuania is a member of the European Union, the Council of Europe, eurozone, the Nordic Investment Bank, Schengen Agreement, NATO and OECD. It participates in the Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8) regional co-operation format and is a permanent observer of the Nordic Council.

  1. ^ "Lithuania's Constitution of 1992 with Amendments through 2019" (PDF). Constitute Project.
  2. ^ "Rodiklių duomenų bazė - Oficialiosios statistikos portalas". osp.stat.gov.lt.
  3. ^ "Population by religious community indicated, municipalities (2021)" (in Lithuanian). Statistics Lithuania. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  4. ^ Kulikauskienė, Lina (2002). Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija [The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania] (in Lithuanian). Native History, CD. ISBN 978-9986-9216-7-7.
  5. ^ Veser, Ernst (23 September 1997). "Semi-Presidentialism-Duverger's Concept – A New Political System Model" (PDF) (in English and Chinese). Department of Education, School of Education, University of Cologne. pp. 39–60. Retrieved 23 August 2017. Duhamel has developed the approach further: He stresses that the French construction does not correspond to either parliamentary or the presidential form of government, and then develops the distinction of 'système politique' and 'régime constitutionnel'. While the former comprises the exercise of power that results from the dominant institutional practice, the latter is the totality of the rules for the dominant institutional practice of the power. In this way, France appears as 'presidentialist system' endowed with a 'semi-presidential regime' (1983: 587). By this standard he recognizes Duverger's pléiade as semi-presidential regimes, as well as Poland, Romania, Bulgaria and Lithuania (1993: 87).
  6. ^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
  7. ^ Shugart, Matthew Søberg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns". French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan Journals. 3 (3): 323–351. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087. A pattern similar to the French case of compatible majorities alternating with periods of cohabitation emerged in Lithuania, where Talat-Kelpsa (2001) notes that the ability of the Lithuanian president to influence government formation and policy declined abruptly when he lost the sympathetic majority in parliament.
  8. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  9. ^ "Pradžia – Oficialiosios statistikos portalas". osp.stat.gov.lt.
  10. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". imf.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  11. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund (IMF). Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  12. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  13. ^ Nations, United (2015). "2020 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
  14. ^ Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2.
  15. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division- Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)-Geographic Regions". Unstats.un.org.
  16. ^ "7206 Europe". Eurovoc. European Union. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference CIA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ "Lithuania". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  19. ^ Bershidsky, Leonid (10 January 2017). "Why the Baltics Want to Move to Another Part of Europe". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference Bideleux was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  21. ^ "Lithuania breaks away from the Soviet Union". The Guardian. London. 12 March 1990. Retrieved 7 June 2018. Lithuania last night became the first republic to break away from the Soviet Union, by proclaiming the restoration of its pre-war independence. The newly-elected parliament, 'reflecting the people's will,' decreed the restoration of 'the sovereign rights of the Lithuanian state, infringed by alien forces in 1940,' and declared that from that moment Lithuania was again an independent state


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