Russia

Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Anthem: 
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Gosudarstvennyy gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Russia on the globe, with disputed territory shown in light green.[a]
Russia on the globe, with disputed territory
shown in light green.[a]
Capital
and largest city
Moscow
55°45′21″N 37°37′02″E / 55.75583°N 37.61722°E / 55.75583; 37.61722
Official language
and national language
Russian[3]
Recognised national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
(2010)[4]
Religion
(2012)[5]
Demonym(s)Russian
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential republic under a centralised authoritarian government[6][7][8][9]
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Lebedev
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
Formation
879
1157
1263
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
30 December 1922
12 June 1990
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
8 December 1999
18 March 2014
Area
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[10] 17,125,191 km2 (including Crimea)[11] (1st)
• Water (%)
13[12] (including swamps)
Population
• 2022 estimate
  • Neutral increase 145,864,296 (Mid-2022)[13]
  • (including Crimea)[14]
  • Neutral decrease 143,054,637
  • (excluding Crimea)[14]
(9th)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (181st)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $4.365 trillion[15] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $30,013[15] (58th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.829 trillion[15] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $12,575[15] (68th)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 36.0[16]
medium · 98th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.824[17]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRussian ruble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

Russia (Russian: Россия, tr. Rossiya, pronounced [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation (RF),[c] is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world by area, covering over 17,098,246 square kilometres (6,601,670 sq mi)[d], and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones and borders fourteen countries by land[e] (the most in the world, tied with China). Russia also shares narrow maritime boundaries with two countries.[f] It is the ninth-most populous country in the world and the most populous country in Europe, with a population of 146 million.[g] The country's capital and largest city is Moscow, the largest city entirely within Europe. Saint Petersburg is Russia's cultural centre and second-largest city. Other major urban areas include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries CE. The medieval state of Kievan Rus' arose in the 9th century, and in 988 adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire. Rus' ultimately disintegrated, with the Grand Duchy of Moscow growing to become the Tsardom of Russia. By the early 18th century, Russia had vastly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third-largest empire in history. The monarchy was abolished following the Russian Revolution in 1917, and the Russian SFSR became the world's first constitutionally socialist state. Following a civil war, the Russian SFSR established the Soviet Union with three other republics, as its largest and the principal constituent. The country underwent a period of rapid industrialisation at the expense of millions of lives. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and was a superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first human into space.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the newly independent Russian SFSR renamed itself the Russian Federation. In the aftermath of the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Since his election in 2000, Vladimir Putin has dominated Russia's political system and Russia has experienced democratic backsliding, becoming an authoritarian state. It ranks low in international measurements of freedom of the press and civil liberties and has high levels of perceived corruption.

The Russian economy is the world's eleventh-largest by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. It has the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons, with the fifth-highest military expenditures. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the world's largest, and it is among the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the SCO, BRICS, the APEC, the OSCE and the WTO, as well as the leading member of the CIS, the CSTO, and the EAEU, Russia is also home of 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

  1. ^ Pifer, Steven (17 March 2020). "Crimea: Six years after illegal annexation". Brookings Institute. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference chapple-2019 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Chevalier, Joan F. (2006). "Russian as the National Language: An Overview of Language Planning in the Russian Federation". Russian Language Journal. American Councils for International Education ACTR / ACCELS. 56: 25–36. JSTOR 43669126.
  4. ^ "ВПН-2010". perepis-2010.ru. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
  5. ^ "Арена: Атлас религий и национальностей" [Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities] (PDF). Среда (Sreda). 2012. See also the results' main interactive mapping and the static mappings: "Religions in Russia by federal subject" (Map). Ogonek. 34 (5243). 27 August 2012. Archived from the original on 21 April 2017. The Sreda Arena Atlas was realised in cooperation with the All-Russia Population Census 2010 (Всероссийской переписи населения 2010), the Russian Ministry of Justice (Минюста РФ), the Public Opinion Foundation (Фонда Общественного Мнения) and presented among others by the Analytical Department of the Synodal Information Department of the Russian Orthodox Church. See: "Проект АРЕНА: Атлас религий и национальностей" [Project ARENA: Atlas of religions and nationalities]. Russian Journal. 10 December 2012.
  6. ^ Håvard Bækken (21 November 2018). Law and Power in Russia: Making Sense of Quasi-Legal Practices. Routledge. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-1-351-33535-5.
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference cia was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Shinichiro Tabata, ed. (17 December 2014). Eurasia's Regional Powers Compared - China, India, Russia. Routledge. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-317-66787-2.
  9. ^ Saul Bernard Cohen (2014). Geopolitics: The Geography of International Relations (3 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-4422-2351-6. OCLC 1020486977.
  10. ^ "World Statistics Pocketbook 2016 edition" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Information about availability and distribution of land in the Russian Federation as of 1 January 2017 (by federal subjects of Russia)" Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 1 January 2017 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации). Rosreestr.
  12. ^ "The Russian federation: general characteristics". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  13. ^ "Росстат — Новости Росстата".
  14. ^ a b Предварительная оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2022 года и в среднем за 2021 год [Preliminary estimated population as of 1 January 2022 and on the average for 2021] (XLS). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  15. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  16. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  17. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.


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