Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Colony of Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630–1686
1689–1691
Map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
StatusDisestablished
CapitalSalem, Charlestown, Boston
Common languagesEnglish, Massachusett, Mi'kmaq
Religion
Congregationalism
GovernmentSelf-governing colony
Governor 
• 1629–1631
John Endecott (first)
• 1689–1692
Simon Bradstreet (last)
LegislatureGreat and General Court or Assembly of Massachusetts Bay
• Upper House (de facto)
Council of Assistants
• Lower House (de facto)
Assembly
Historical eraBritish colonization of the Americas
Puritan migration to New England (1620–1640)
• Charter Issued
1630
1643
• Revocation of the Royal Charter
1684
• Dominion of New England established
1686
• Dominion dissolved
1689
• Massachusetts Charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay
1691
• Disestablished, reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay
1686
1689–1691
CurrencyPound sterling
Massachusetts pound, pine tree shilling
Succeeded by
Dominion of New England
Province of Massachusetts Bay
Today part ofMassachusetts
Maine
New Hampshire

The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630–1691), more formally The Colony of Massachusetts Bay, was an English settlement on the east coast of America around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The lands of the settlement were in southern New England, with initial settlements on two natural harbors and surrounding land about 15.4 miles (24.8 km) apart—the areas around Salem and Boston, north of the previously established Plymouth Colony. The territory nominally administered by the Massachusetts Bay Colony covered much of central New England, including portions of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Connecticut.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by the owners of the Massachusetts Bay Company, including investors in the failed Dorchester Company, which had established a short-lived settlement on Cape Ann in 1623. The colony began in 1628 and was the company's second attempt at colonization. It was successful, with about 20,000 people migrating to New England in the 1630s. The population was strongly Puritan and was governed largely by a small group of leaders strongly influenced by Puritan teachings. It was the first slave-holding colony in New England, and its governors were elected by an electorate limited to freemen who had been formally admitted to the local church. As a consequence, the colonial leadership showed little tolerance for other religious views, including Anglican, Quaker,[1] and Baptist theologies.

The colonists had good relationships with the local Indians, however they did join their neighbor colonies in the Pequot War (1636–38) and King Philip's War (1675–78). After which most of the Indians in southern New England made peace treaties with the colonists or were sold into slavery after King Philips's War (apart from the Pequot tribe, whose survivors were largely absorbed into the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes following the Pequot War).[2]

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was economically successful, trading with England, Mexico and the West Indies. In addition to barter, transactions were done in English pounds, Spanish "pieces of eight", and wampum in the 1640s. A shortage of currency prompted the colony to call on the respected John Hull to establish a mint and serve as mintmaster and treasurer in 1652. The Hull Mint produced oak tree, willow tree, and pine tree shillings.

Political differences with England after the English Restoration led to the revocation of the colonial charter in 1684. King James II established the Dominion of New England in 1686 to bring all of the New England colonies under firmer crown control. The Dominion collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 deposed James, and the Massachusetts Bay Colony reverted to rule under its revoked charter until 1691, when a new charter was issued for the Province of Massachusetts Bay. This new province combined the Massachusetts Bay territories with those of the Plymouth Colony and proprietary holdings on Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. Sir William Phips arrived in 1692 bearing the charter and formally took charge of the new province.

  1. ^ Pestana, Carla Gardina (September 1983). "The City upon a Hill under Siege: The Puritan Perception of the Quaker Threat to Massachusetts Bay, 1656–1661". The New England Quarterly. 56 (3): 323–353. doi:10.2307/365396. JSTOR 365396.
  2. ^ Vaughan, p. 97,129, 332

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia · View on Wikipedia

Developed by Nelliwinne