Scotland (Scots)
Alba (Scottish Gaelic)
Motto: "In My Defens God Me Defend" (Scots)
"In my defence God me defend"
Anthem: Various
Location of Scotland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the United Kingdom (green)
Location of Scotland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom (green)

55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.95306°N 3.18889°W / 55.95306; -3.18889
Largest cityGlasgow
55°51′40″N 4°15′00″W / 55.86111°N 4.25000°W / 55.86111; -4.25000
Recognised languages
Ethnic groups
List of ethnicities
  • 96.0% White
  • 2.7% Asian
  • 0.7% Black
  • 0.4% Mixed
  • 0.2% Arab
  • 0.1% other[6]
53.8% Christianity
—32.4% Church of Scotland
—15.9% Roman Catholic
—5.5% Other Christian
36.7% No religion
1.4% Islam
0.3% Hinduism
0.2% Buddhism
0.2% Sikhism
0.1% Judaism
0.3% Other[7][8][9]
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary legislature within a constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Charles III
Nicola Sturgeon
John Swinney
Parliament of the United Kingdom
• Secretary of StateAlister Jack
• House of Commons59 MPs (of 650)
LegislatureScottish Parliament
9th century (traditionally 843)
17 March 1328
3 October 1357[10]
1 May 1707
19 November 1998
• Land
77,933 km2 (30,090 sq mi)[11]
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
Neutral increase 5,463,300[12]
• 2011 census
• Density
67.5/km2 (174.8/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
£166 billion
• Per capita
HDI (2019)0.925[15]
very high
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP£)
Time zoneUTC (Greenwich Mean Time)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+44
ISO 3166 codeGB-SCT
  1. ^ .scot is not a ccTLD, but a GeoTLD, open to use by all with a connection to Scotland or Scottish culture. .uk as part of the United Kingdom is also used. ISO 3166-1 is GB, but .gb is unused.

Scotland (Scots: Scotland, Scottish Gaelic: Alba [ˈal̪ˠapə] (listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain,[16][17][18] mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154-kilometre) border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast and east, and the Irish Sea to the south. It also contains more than 790 islands,[19] principally in the archipelagos of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. Most of the population, including the capital Edinburgh, is concentrated in the Central Belt—the plain between the Scottish Highlands and the Southern Uplands—in the Scottish Lowlands.

Scotland is divided into 32 administrative subdivisions or local authorities, known as council areas.[20] Glasgow City is the largest council area in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. Limited self-governing power, covering matters such as education, social services and roads and transportation, is devolved from the Scottish Government to each subdivision.[20] Scotland is the second-largest country in the United Kingdom, and accounted for 8.3% of the population in 2012.[21]

The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the 9th century and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI of Scotland became king of England and Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain.[22][23] The union also created the Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain entered into a political union with the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (in 1922, the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being officially renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927).[24]

Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland. The legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland; Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.[25] The continued existence of legal, educational, religious and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 incorporating union with England.[26]

In 1999, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy.[27] The head of the Scottish Government is the first minister of Scotland, who is supported by the deputy first minister of Scotland.[28] Scotland is represented in the United Kingdom Parliament by 59 MPs. It is also a member of the British–Irish Council,[29] sending five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly,[30] as well as being part of the Joint Ministerial Committee, represented by the first minister.[31]

  1. ^ "St Andrew—Quick Facts". Scotland. org—The Official Online Gateway. Archived from the original on 11 November 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  2. ^ "St Andrew". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  3. ^ "St Margaret of Scotland". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  4. ^ "Patron saints". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  5. ^ "St Columba". Catholic Online. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference ethnicity was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Other religion"Analysis of Religion in the 2001 Census". Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  8. ^ "Scotland's Census 2011 – National Records of Scotland" (PDF). Scotland's Census. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  9. ^ "2011 Census: Key Results from Releases 2A to 2D". Scotland's Census.
  10. ^ "The Treaty of Berwick was signed - On this day in Scottish history". History Scotland. 3 October 2020.
  11. ^ Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference ONS-pop-ests-June2018 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ "Population estimates by sex, age and administrative area, Scotland, 2011 and 2012". National Records of Scotland. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  14. ^ Fenton, Trevor. "Regional economic activity by gross domestic product, UK: 1998 to 2019, UK- Office for National Statistics".
  15. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  16. ^ "The Countries of the UK". Office for National Statistics. 6 April 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
  17. ^ "Countries within a country". 10 Downing Street. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2008. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland
  18. ^ "ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Date: 28 November 2007 No I-9. "Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements" (Page 11)" (PDF). International Organization for Standardization codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision codes. Retrieved 31 May 2008. SCT Scotland country
  19. ^ "Scottish Executive Resources" (PDF). Scotland in Short. Scottish Executive. 17 February 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  20. ^ a b "Scottish Local Government". Archived from the original on 13 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  21. ^ "Scotland in numbers". BBC News. 25 November 2013.
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference Keay was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference Mackie was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ "Parliament and Ireland". London: The Houses of Parliament. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  25. ^ Collier, J. G. (2001) Conflict of Laws (Third edition)(pdf) Cambridge University Press. "For the purposes of the English conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of England and Wales is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia ... are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom – Scotland and Northern Ireland – are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey."
  26. ^ Devine, T. M. (1999), The Scottish Nation 1700–2000, P.288–289, ISBN 0-14-023004-1 "created a new and powerful local state run by the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed Scotland"
  27. ^ "Devolution Settlement, Scotland". Retrieved 7 May 2017.
  28. ^ "Cabinet and ministers". Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  29. ^ "Scotland / Alba". British-Irish Council. 7 December 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  30. ^ "Members". British-Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  31. ^ "StackPath".

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