JavaScript screenshot.png
Screenshot of JavaScript source code
ParadigmMulti-paradigm: event-driven, functional, imperative, procedural, object-oriented programming
Designed byBrendan Eich of Netscape initially; others have also contributed to the ECMAScript standard
First appearedDecember 4, 1995 (1995-12-04)[1]
Stable release
ECMAScript 2021[2] Edit this on Wikidata / June 2021 (June 2021)
Preview release
ECMAScript 2022[3] Edit this on Wikidata / 22 July 2021 (22 July 2021)
Typing disciplineDynamic, weak, duck
Filename extensions
  • .js
  • .cjs
  • .mjs[4]
Major implementations
V8, JavaScriptCore, SpiderMonkey, Chakra
Influenced by
Java,[5][6] Scheme,[6] Self,[7] AWK,[8] HyperTalk[9]
ActionScript, AssemblyScript, CoffeeScript, Dart, Haxe, JS++, Objective-J, Opa, TypeScript

JavaScript (/ˈɑːvəskrɪpt/),[10] often abbreviated JS, is a programming language that is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and CSS.[11] As of 2022, 98% of websites use JavaScript on the client side for web page behavior,[12] often incorporating third-party libraries.[13] All major web browsers have a dedicated JavaScript engine to execute the code on users' devices.

JavaScript is a high-level, often just-in-time compiled language that conforms to the ECMAScript standard.[14] It has dynamic typing, prototype-based object-orientation, and first-class functions. It is multi-paradigm, supporting event-driven, functional, and imperative programming styles. It has application programming interfaces (APIs) for working with text, dates, regular expressions, standard data structures, and the Document Object Model (DOM).

The ECMAScript standard does not include any input/output (I/O), such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities. In practice, the web browser or other runtime system provides JavaScript APIs for I/O.

JavaScript engines were originally used only in web browsers, but are now core components of some servers and a variety of applications. The most popular runtime system for this usage is Node.js.

Although Java and JavaScript are similar in name, syntax, and respective standard libraries, the two languages are distinct and differ greatly in design.

  1. ^ Press release announcing JavaScript, "Netscape and Sun announce JavaScript", PR Newswire, December 4, 1995
  2. ^ "ECMAScript® 2021 language specification". June 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  3. ^; retrieved: 27 July 2021; publication date: 22 July 2021.
  4. ^ "nodejs/node-eps". GitHub. Archived from the original on 2020-08-29. Retrieved 2018-07-05.
  5. ^ Seibel, Peter (September 16, 2009). Coders at Work: Reflections on the Craft of Programming. ISBN 9781430219484. Archived from the original on December 24, 2020. Retrieved December 25, 2018. Eich: The immediate concern at Netscape was it must look like Java.
  6. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference origin was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ "Popularity – Brendan Eich".
  8. ^ "Brendan Eich: An Introduction to JavaScript, JSConf 2010". YouTube. p. 22m. Archived from the original on August 29, 2020. Retrieved November 25, 2019. Eich: "function", eight letters, I was influenced by AWK.
  9. ^ Eich, Brendan (1998). "Foreword". In Goodman, Danny (ed.). JavaScript Bible (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-7645-3188-3. LCCN 97078208. OCLC 38888873. OL 712205M.
  10. ^ "JavaScript". 2016-04-27. Archived from the original on August 9, 2021. Retrieved August 9, 2021.
  11. ^ Flanagan, David (18 April 2011). JavaScript: the definitive guide. Beijing; Farnham: O'Reilly. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4493-9385-4. OCLC 686709345. JavaScript is part of the triad of technologies that all Web developers must learn: HTML to specify the content of web pages, CSS to specify the presentation of web pages, and JavaScript to specify the behavior of web pages.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference deployedstats was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference lib_usage was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ "ECMAScript® 2020 Language Specification". Archived from the original on 2020-05-08. Retrieved 2020-05-08.

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