Cider, in the traditional Hessian "ribbed" glass
Cider jugs. Somerset, England

Cider (/ˈsdər/ SY-dər) is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.[1] Cider is widely available in the United Kingdom (particularly in the West Country) and the Republic of Ireland. The UK has the world's highest per capita consumption, as well as the largest cider-producing companies. Ciders from the South West of England are generally higher in alcoholic content.[2][3][4] Cider is also popular in many Commonwealth countries, such as India, Canada, Australia,[5][6] and New Zealand.[7] As well as the UK and its former colonies, cider is popular in Portugal (mainly in Minho and Madeira), France (particularly Normandy and Brittany), Friuli, and northern Spain (specifically Asturias). Germany also has its own types of cider with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse producing a particularly tart version known as Apfelwein. In the U.S., varieties of fermented cider are often called hard cider to distinguish alcoholic cider from non-alcoholic apple cider or "sweet cider", also made from apples. In Canada, cider cannot contain less than 2.5% or over 13% absolute alcohol by volume.[8]

The juice of most varieties of apple, including crab apples, can be used to make cider, but cider apples are best.[9] The addition of sugar or extra fruit before a second fermentation increases the ethanol content of the resulting beverage.[10][11] Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% to 8.5% ABV or more in traditional English ciders, and 3.5% to 12% in continental ciders.[1] In UK law, it must contain at least 35% apple juice (fresh or from concentrate),[12] although CAMRA (the Campaign for Real Ale) says that "real cider" must be at least 90% fresh apple juice.[13] In the US, there is a 50% minimum.[14] In France, cider must be made solely from apples.[15]

In 2014, a study found that a 1-US-pint (470 ml) bottle of mass-market cider contained five teaspoons (20.5 g) of sugar, nearly the amount the WHO recommends as an adult's daily allowance of added sugar, and 5–10 times the amount of sugar in lager or ale.[16]

Perry is a similar product to cider made from fermented pear juice.[17] When distilled, cider turns into fruit brandy.[18]

  1. ^ a b Falkow, Stanley; Rosenberg, Eugene; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Stackebrandt, Erko (10 October 2006). The Prokaryotes: Vol. 5: Proteobacteria: Alpha and Beta Subclasses. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-387-25495-1.
  2. ^ "National Association of Cider Makers". Archived from the original on 2001-01-24. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
  3. ^ Bowers, Simon (2006-06-26). "Bulmers to take on Magners in a cider decider". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2006-06-20.
  4. ^ "Interesting Facts". National Association of Cider Makers. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
  5. ^ "Cider Australia". Cider Australia. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  6. ^ "Australia's most popular cider brands - hospitality | Magazine". hospitality | Magazine. 2016-12-13. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  7. ^ "The rise and rise of cider". NZ Herald. 15 October 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  8. ^ Branch, Legislative Services (2019-06-03). "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations". Retrieved 2019-07-16.
  9. ^ Lea, Andrew. "The Science of Cidermaking Part 1 - Introduction". Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  10. ^ Lindsley, E. F. (Nov 1960). "The Rig You Need to Make Hard Cider". Popular Science. 177 (5): 137. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  11. ^ Brown, Sanborn Conner (1978). Wines & Beers of Old New England: A How-to-do-it History. UPNE. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-87451-148-2.
  12. ^ "Consider cider". The Guardian. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  13. ^ Gallagher, Paul (25 November 2012). "Pear cider boom angers purists". The Independent. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  14. ^ Badeker, Andy (13 November 2002). "Crush on cider". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  15. ^ Blenkinsop, Philip (20 December 2012). "Insight: Cider, the golden apple of brewers' eyes". Reuters. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  16. ^ Malnick, Edward (29 March 2014). "Hidden levels of sugar in alcohol revealed". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  17. ^ Huddleston, Nigel (2008-04-24). "Pear Perception". Morning Advertiser. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
  18. ^ "Apple Brandy". Distiller Magazine. 2017-07-01. Retrieved 2020-12-19.

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