Temporal range: Paleocene[1]- Recent
Vitis californica with grapes.jpg
Vitis californica with fruit
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Vitales
Family: Vitaceae
Subfamily: Vitoideae
Genus: Vitis
Type species
Vitis vinifera

Vitis (grapevine) is a genus of 79 accepted species[6] of vining plants in the flowering plant family Vitaceae. The genus is made up of species predominantly from the Northern Hemisphere. It is economically important as the source of grapes, both for direct consumption of the fruit and for fermentation to produce wine. The study and cultivation of grapevines is called viticulture.

Most cultivated Vitis varieties are wind-pollinated with hermaphroditic flowers containing both male and female reproductive structures, while wild species are dieceous. These flowers are grouped in bunches called inflorescences. In many species, such as Vitis vinifera, each successfully pollinated flower becomes a grape berry with the inflorescence turning into a cluster of grapes. While the flowers of the grapevines are usually very small, the berries are often large and brightly colored with sweet flavors that attract birds and other animals to disperse the seeds contained within the berries.[7]

Grapevines usually only produce fruit on shoots that came from buds that were developed during the previous growing season. In viticulture, this is one of the principles behind pruning the previous year's growth (or "One year old wood") that includes shoots that have turned hard and woody during the winter (after harvest in commercial viticulture). These vines will be pruned either into a cane which will support 8 to 15 buds or to a smaller spur which holds 2 to 3 buds.[7]

  1. ^ Roland Wilbur Brown. Paleocene Flora of the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
  2. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Vitis L.". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  3. ^ GRIN. "Species in GRIN for genus Vitis". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2010.
  4. ^  V. kelungensis, V. yeshanensis Ahmet Güner; Gábor Gyulai; Zoltán Tóth; Gülsüm Asena Başlı; Zoltán Szabó; Ferenc Gyulai; András Bittsánszky; Luther Waters Jr.; László Heszky (2008). "Grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds from Antiquity and the Middle Ages Excavated in Hungary - LM and SEM analysis" (PDF). Anadolu Univ J Sci Technol. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2012. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  5. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved July 9, 2015.
  6. ^ "The Plant List: Vitis". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 2013.
  7. ^ a b Wine & Spirits Education Trust "Wine and Spirits: Understanding Wine Quality" pgs 2-5, Second Revised Edition (2012), London, ISBN 9781905819157

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