Education

Left to right, from top: Lecture at the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University, in Prague, Czech Republic; School children sitting in the shade of an orchard in Bamozai, near Gardez, Paktia Province, Afghanistan; Student participants in the FIRST Robotics Competition, Washington, D.C.; Early childhood education through USAID in Ziway, Ethiopia

Education is a purposeful activity directed at achieving certain aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering skills and character traits. These aims may include the development of understanding, rationality, kindness, and honesty. Various researchers emphasize the role of critical thinking in order to distinguish education from indoctrination. Some theorists require that education results in an improvement of the student while others prefer a value-neutral definition of the term. In a slightly different sense, education may also refer, not to the process, but to the product of this process: the mental states and dispositions possessed by educated people. Education originated as the transmission of cultural heritage from one generation to the next. Today, educational goals increasingly encompass new ideas such as the liberation of learners, skills needed for modern society, empathy, and complex vocational skills.

Types of education are commonly divided into formal, non-formal, and informal education. Formal education takes place in education and training institutions, is usually structured by curricular aims and objectives, and learning is typically guided by a teacher. In most regions, formal education is compulsory up to a certain age and commonly divided into educational stages such as kindergarten, primary school and secondary school. Nonformal education occurs as addition or alternative to formal education.[1] It may be structured according to educational arrangements, but in a more flexible manner, and usually takes place in community-based, workplace-based or civil society-based settings. Lastly, informal education occurs in daily life, in the family, any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational, whether unintentional or intentional. In practice there is a continuum from the highly formalized to the highly informalized, and informal learning can occur in all three settings.[2] For instance, homeschooling can be classified as nonformal or informal, depending upon the structure.

Regardless of setting, educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion, and directed research. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Education is supported by a variety of different philosophies, theories and empirical research agendas.

There are movements for education reforms, such as for improving quality and efficiency of education towards relevance in students' lives and efficient problem solving in modern or future society at large, or for evidence-based education methodologies. A right to education has been recognized by some governments and the United Nations.[a] Global initiatives aim at achieving the Sustainable Development Goal 4, which promotes quality education for all.

  1. ^ Singh, M. (2015). Global Perspectives on Recognising Non-formal and Informal Learning: Why Recognition Matters. Springer-UNESCO. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15278-3 Archived 30 July 2022 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Livingstone, D. W. (2005). Expanding conception of work and learning: Research and policy impli-cations. In K. Leithwood, D. W. Livingstone, A. Cumming, N. Bascia, & A. Datnow (Eds.), International handbook of educational policy (pp. 977–996). New York: Kluwer Publishers.


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