Hindi

Hindi
Modern Standard Hindi
हिन्दीHindī
Hindi.svg
The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script
Pronunciation[ˈɦɪndiː]
Native toIndia
RegionNorthern, Eastern, Western, and Central India (Hindi Belt)
Native speakers
L1 speakers: 322 million speakers of Hindi and various related languages reported their language as 'Hindi' (2011 census)[1]
L2 speakers: 270 million (2016)[2]
Early forms
Dialects
Signed Hindi
Official status
Official language in
 India
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byCentral Hindi Directorate[8]
Language codes
ISO 639-1hi
ISO 639-2hin
ISO 639-3hin
hin-hin
Glottologhind1269
Linguasphere59-AAF-qf
Hindi 2011 Indian Census by district.svg
Distribution of L1 self-reported speakers of Hindi in India per the 2011 Census.
Part of a series on
Different scripts of different languages of India.svg
Constitutionally recognised languages of India
Category
22 Official Languages of the Indian Republic

Assamese  · Bengali  · Bodo  · Dogri  · Gujarati
Hindi  · Kannada  · Kashmiri  · Konkani  · Maithili
Malayalam  · Marathi  · Meitei (Manipuri)  · Nepali  · Odia
Punjabi  · Sanskrit  · Santali  · Sindhi  · Tamil
Telugu  · Urdu

Related

Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India
Official Languages Commission
List of languages by number of native speakers in India

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Hindi (Devanāgarī: हिन्दी हिंदी, Hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी Mānak Hindī),[9] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in the Hindi Belt region encompassing parts of northern, central, eastern, and western India. Hindi has been described as a standardised and Sanskritised register[10] of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas of North India.[11][12][13] Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with English.[14] It is an official language in nine states and three union territories and an additional official language in three other states.[15][16][17][18] Hindi is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[19]

Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi Belt. It is also spoken, to a lesser extent, in other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi).[15][20] Outside India, several other languages are recognised officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which has an official status in Fiji,[21] and Caribbean Hindustani, which is spoken in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.[22][23][24][25] Apart from the script and formal vocabulary, standard Hindi is mutually intelligible with standard Urdu, another recognised register of Hindustani as both share a common colloquial base.[26]

Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English.[27] If counted together with Urdu, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English.[28][29]

  1. ^ "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 29 June 2018.
  2. ^ Hindi at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  3. ^ a b Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown (ed.). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.
  4. ^ Gangopadhyay, Avik (2020). Glimpses of Indian Languages. Evincepub publishing. p. 43. ISBN 9789390197828.
  5. ^ Palakodety, Shriphani; KhudaBukhsh, Ashiqur R.; Jayachandran, Guha (2021), "Low Resource Machine Translation", Low Resource Social Media Text Mining, Singapore: Springer Singapore, pp. 7–9, doi:10.1007/978-981-16-5625-5_5, ISBN 978-981-16-5624-8, S2CID 244313560, retrieved 24 September 2022
  6. ^ "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 - Chapter 1: Founding Provisions". www.gov.za. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  7. ^ "Abu Dhabi includes Hindi as third official court language". The Hindu. 10 February 2019 – via www.thehindu.com.
  8. ^ "Central Hindi Directorate: Introduction". Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  9. ^ Singh, Rajendra, and Rama Kant Agnihotri. Hindi morphology: A word-based description. Vol. 9. Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1997.
  10. ^ "Constitution of India". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  11. ^ "About Hindi-Urdu". North Carolina State University. Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
  12. ^ Basu, Manisha (2017). The Rhetoric of Hindutva. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-14987-8. Urdu, like Hindi, was a standardized register of the Hindustani language deriving from the Delhi dialect and emerged in the eighteenth century under the rule of the late Mughals.
  13. ^ Peter-Dass, Rakesh (2019). Hindi Christian Literature in Contemporary India. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-00-070224-8. Two forms of the same language, Nagarai Hindi and Persianized Hindi (Urdu) had identical grammar, shared common words and roots, and employed different scripts.
  14. ^ "Constitutional Provisions: Official Language Related Part-17 of The Constitution Of India". Department of Official Language, Government of India. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  15. ^ a b "How languages intersect in India". Hindustan Times. 22 November 2018.
  16. ^ "How many Indians can you talk to?". www.hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  17. ^ "Hindi and the North-South divide". 9 October 2018.
  18. ^ Pillalamarri, Akhilesh. "India's Evolving Linguistic Landscape". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  19. ^ "PART A Languages specified in the Eighth Schedule (Scheduled Languages)". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
  20. ^ "How many Indians can you talk to?". www.hindustantimes.com.
  21. ^ "Hindi Diwas 2018: Hindi travelled to these five countries from India". 14 September 2018.
  22. ^ "Sequence of events with reference to official language of the Union". Archived from the original on 2 August 2011.
  23. ^ "रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी का संविधान (Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, the Hindi version)". Archived from the original on 1 November 2013.
  24. ^ "Caribbean Languages and Caribbean Linguistics" (PDF). University of the West Indies Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
  25. ^ Richard K. Barz (8 May 2007). "The cultural significance of Hindi in Mauritius". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 3: 1–13. doi:10.1080/00856408008722995.
  26. ^ Gube, Jan; Gao, Fang (2019). Education, Ethnicity and Equity in the Multilingual Asian Context. Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-981-13-3125-1. The national language of India and Pakistan 'Standard Urdu' is mutually intelligible with 'Standard Hindi' because both languages share the same Indic base and are all but indistinguishable in phonology and grammar (Lust et al. 2000).
  27. ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine for the top dozen languages.
  28. ^ Gambhir, Vijay (1995). The Teaching and Acquisition of South Asian Languages. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-3328-5. The position of Hindi-Urdu among the languages of the world is anomalous. The number of its proficient speakers, over three hundred million, places it in third of fourth place after Mandarin, English, and perhaps Spanish.
  29. ^ "Hindustani". Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017 – via encyclopedia.com.


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