National Collegiate Athletic Association

National Collegiate
Athletic Association
FoundedMarch 31, 1906 (1906-03-31) [a]
Legal statusAssociation
HeadquartersIndianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
Region served
United States and Canada[2]
about 1,100 schools[3]
Mark Emmert
Main organ
Board of Governors

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)[b] is a nonprofit organization that regulates student athletics among about 1,100 schools in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico.[3] It also organizes the athletic programs of colleges and universities in the United States and Canada and helps over 500,000 college student athletes who compete annually in college sports.[3] The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Until 1957, the NCAA was a single division for all schools. That year, the NCAA split into the University Division and the College Division.[4] In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978, while Division I programs that did not have football teams were known as I-AAA. In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS). In its 2016–17 fiscal year, the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of which was generated by the Division I men's basketball tournament.

Controversially, the NCAA formerly capped the benefits that collegiate athletes could receive from their schools. The consensus among economists is these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools (through rent-seeking) at the expense of the athletes.[5][6][7] Economists have subsequently characterized the NCAA as a cartel.[8][9][10] On June 21, 2021, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously ruled that the education-related benefit caps the NCAA imposes on student athletes are in violation of US antitrust law.[11]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference ncaahist was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "Simon Fraser University approved to join NCAA D II". October 7, 2009. Archived from the original on July 14, 2009. Retrieved November 6, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c "Overview". National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  4. ^ "NCAA Group Opens Talks On Money Aid To Players". Kingsport Times. August 20, 1956. p. 7 – via
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference :5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ Sanderson, Allen R.; Siegfried, John J. (February 2015). "The Case for Paying College Athletes". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 29 (1): 115–138. doi:10.1257/jep.29.1.115.
  7. ^ Garthwaite, Craig; Keener, Jordan; Notowidigdo, Matthew J; Ozminkowski, Nicole F (October 2020). "Who Profits From Amateurism? Rent-Sharing in Modern College Sports". National Bureau of Economic Research. doi:10.3386/w27734.
  8. ^ Sanderson, Allen R.; Siegfried, John J. (March 1, 2018). "The National Collegiate Athletic Association Cartel: Why it Exists, How it Works, and What it Does". Review of Industrial Organization. 52 (2): 185–209. doi:10.1007/s11151-017-9590-z. ISSN 1573-7160. S2CID 86850372.
  9. ^ Blair, Roger D.; Whitman, Joseph (March 1, 2017). "The NCAA Cartel, Monopsonistic Restrictions, and Antitrust Policy". The Antitrust Bulletin. 62 (1): 3–14. doi:10.1177/0003603X16688836. ISSN 0003-603X. S2CID 157372084.
  10. ^ Humphreys, Brad R.; Ruseski, Jane E. (2009). "Monitoring Cartel Behavior and Stability: Evidence from NCAA Football". Southern Economic Journal. 75 (3): 720–735. doi:10.1002/j.2325-8012.2009.tb00928.x. ISSN 0038-4038. JSTOR 27751412. S2CID 44035483.
  11. ^ "High court rules against NCAA on compensation". June 21, 2021. Retrieved June 21, 2021.

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