People's Action Party

People's Action Party
Malay nameParti Tindakan Rakyat
Chinese name人民行动党
Rénmín Xíngdòng Dǎng
Tamil nameமக்களின் செயல் கட்சி
Makkaḷin Ceyal Kaṭci
ChairmanGan Kim Yong
Secretary-GeneralLee Hsien Loong
Assistant Secretaries-General
Founded21 November 1954 (1954-11-21)
Preceded byMalayan Forum
Succeeded by (Malaysia)
HeadquartersBlock 57B New Upper Changi Road #01-1402 Singapore 463057
Youth wingYoung PAP
Political positionCentre-right[8]
Colours  White
SloganOur Lives, Our Jobs, Our Future
Governing bodyCentral Executive Committee
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The People's Action Party (abbreviation: PAP) is a major conservative centre-right[8] political party in Singapore and is one of the three contemporary political parties represented in Parliament, alongside the Workers' Party (WP) and Progress Singapore Party (PSP).[9][10]

Initially founded as a traditional centre-left party in 1954, the leftist faction was soon expelled from the party in 1961 by Lee Kuan Yew in the midst of Singapore's merger with Malaysia, desiring to move the party's ideology towards the centre after its first electoral victory in 1959.[11] Beginning in the 1960s, the party henceforth began to move towards the centre-right.[12] Following the 1965 agreement which led to Singapore's expulsion from the Malaysian federation, almost the entire opposition except for the WP boycotted the following elections in 1968 in response to their initial incredulity towards independence, thereafter allowing the PAP the opportunity to exercise exclusivity over its governance of national institutions and become the largest political party in the country.[13]

Between 1965 and 1981, the PAP was the only political force represented in parliament until it saw its first electoral defeat to the WP at a by-election in the constituency of Anson. Nevertheless, the PAP has not seen its hegemony effectively threatened and has always exceeded 60% of the votes and 80% of the seats in all subsequent elections. The PAP is the longest, uninterrupted ruling party among multiparty parliamentary democracies in the world at 63 years as of 2022, and the second in history after Mexico's Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) which led for 71 years from 1929 to 2000.[14]

Positioned on the centre-right of Singaporean politics, the PAP is ideologically socially conservative and economically liberal. The party generally favours free-market economics, having turned Singapore's economy into one of the world's freest and most open,[15] but has at times engaged in state interventionism reminiscent of welfare capitalist policies. Socially, it supports communitarianism and civic nationalism, with the cohesion of the country's main ethnic groups of the Chinese, Malay and Indian into a united Singaporean national identity forming many of its policies.[16] On foreign policy, it favours maintaining a strong and robust military, serving as an indispensable guarantor of the country's continued sovereignty stemming from its strategic position for international finance and trade.[17][18]

  1. ^ Goldblatt, David (2005). Governance in the Asia-Pacific. Routledge. p. 293.
  2. ^ Tan, Kenneth Paul (2016). Governing Global-City Singapore. Taylor & Francis. p. 91.
  3. ^ Berger, Mark (2014). Rethinking the Third World. Macmillan. p. 98.
  4. ^ Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng (2010). Rebuilding the Ancestral Village. Hong Kong University Press. p. 37.
  5. ^ Lim, Benny (18 January 2017). "Nation building reboot needed". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Singh, Bilveer (2017). Understanding Singapore Politics. World Scientific Publishing Company. p. 36.
  8. ^ a b Diane K. Mauzy and R.S. Milne (2002). Singapore Politics Under the People's Action Party. Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 0-415-24653-9.
  9. ^ Rodan, Gary. "The Internet and Political Control in Singapore" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 February 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  10. ^ Reyes, Sebastian (29 September 2015). "Singapore's Stubborn Authoritarianism | Harvard Political Review". Harvard Political Review. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  11. ^ "Singapore's Cadre System". Retrieved 15 May 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. ^ Lam, Peng Er (1999). Lee's lieutenants: Singapore's old guard. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86508-172-4.
  13. ^ "GIGA IAS Booth A9 at ICAS 10 Conference in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 20-23 July 2017". Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. 35 (3): 204. 2016. doi:10.1177/186810341603500312. ISSN 1868-1034.
  14. ^ Oliver, Steven; Ostwald, Kai (2018). "Explaining Elections in Singapore: Dominant Party Resilience and Valence Politics". Journal of East Asian Studies. 18 (2): 129–156. doi:10.1017/jea.2018.15. ISSN 1598-2408. S2CID 232329919.
  15. ^ "Index of Economic Freedom: Promoting Economic Opportunity and Prosperity by Country". Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  16. ^ Ortmann, Stephan (December 2009). "Singapore: The Politics of Inventing National Identity". Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. 28 (4): 23–46. doi:10.1177/186810340902800402. S2CID 73649569.
  17. ^ "SAF remains final guarantor of Singapore's independence". Singapore: Channel NewsAsia. 1 July 2007. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  18. ^ "Lunch Talk on "Defending Singapore: Strategies for a Small State" by Minister for Defence Teo Chee Hean" (Press release). Ministry of Defence. 21 April 2005. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2011.

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