Estado de Roraima
State of Roraima
Amazônia: patrimônio dos brasileiros
(English: The Amazon: Brazilians' heritage)
Anthem: Hino de Roraima
Location of State of Roraima in Brazil
Location of State of Roraima in Brazil
Coordinates: 2°3′N 61°24′W / 2.050°N 61.400°W / 2.050; -61.400
FoundedSeptember 13, 1943 (as a federal territory)
EstablishedOctober 5, 1988 (as a state)
Capital and largest cityBoa Vista
 • GovernorAntonio Denarium (PP)
 • Vice GovernorEdilson Damião (REP)
 • SenatorsChico Rodrigues (PSB)
Hiran Gonçalves (PP)
Mecias de Jesus (REP)
 • Total223,644.527 km2 (86,349.635 sq mi)
 • Rank14th
 • Estimate 
 • Rank27th
 • Density2.91/km2 (7.5/sq mi)
  • Rank27th
Roraimense (pt)[1]
 • Year2020
 • TotalUS$ 3,150,000,000 (27th)[3]
 • Per capitaUS$ 6,138 (14th)
 • Year2021
 • Category0.699[4]medium (20th)
Time zoneUTC−4 (AMT)
Postal Code
69300-000 to 69399-000
ISO 3166 codeBR-RR

Roraima (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʁoˈɾajmɐ] , or [ʁoˈɾɐ̃jmɐ])[5] is one of the 26 states of Brazil. Located in the country's North Region, it is the northernmost and most geographically and logistically isolated state in Brazil.[6] It is bordered by the state of Pará to the southeast, Amazonas to the south and west, Venezuela to the north and northwest, and Guyana to the east.[7]

The state covers an area of approximately 223,644.527 square kilometres (86,300 sq mi),[1] slightly larger than Belarus, being the fourteenth largest Brazilian state by area.[8] The city of Boa Vista is the capital and largest city in the state, and is the only capital in the country located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.[9] Antônio Denarium, a member of the conservative Progressistas party, has been the governor of the state since 2019.[10]

Roraima is the least populous state in Brazil, with an estimated population of 631,181 inhabitants as of 2020.[1] It is also the state with the lowest population density in Brazil, with 2.01 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its economy, based mainly on the tertiary sector, registers a high growth rate, although its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the lowest in the country, with R$ 16.024 billion, representing only 0.20% of the Brazilian economy.[2]

The history of Roraima is strongly linked to the Branco River, which allowed the first Portuguese settlers to arrive in the region. The Branco River Valley's strategic position made it coveted by the English and the Dutch, who entered Brazil through the Guiana Shield in search of indigenous people to be enslaved. The Spaniards also came to invade the northern part of the Branco River and the Uraricoera River through Venezuela. The Portuguese settlers defeated and expelled all invaders, establishing Portugal's sovereignty over the region of Roraima and part of the Amazonas.[11]

As a result of crisis in Venezuela since the 2010s, Roraima has become the leading entry point for Venezuelan refugees in Brazil. Displaced Venezuelans in Roraima are estimated to number around 100,000, approximately one-fifth of the state's population.[12]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Roraima | Cities and States | IBGE". Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Resumo por UF - Sistema de Contas Regionais 2020". Agência de Notícias - IBGE (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  3. ^ "Sistema de Contas Regionais: Brasil 2018" (PDF). IBGE. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  4. ^ "Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano no Brasil. Pnud Brasil, Ipea e FJP, 2022". Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  5. ^ "Qual o jeito correto de pronunciar Roraima?" (in Brazilian Portuguese). 31 July 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  6. ^ "Roraima - Características Físicas e Humanas". 7 July 2011. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  7. ^ "Roraima". Só Geografia (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  8. ^ "Áreas Territoriais | IBGE". Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  9. ^ Br, Inaê; RR, ão e Jackson FélixDo G1 (5 October 2016). "Rorãima, Roráima? Veja curiosidades sobre estado que completa 28 anos". Roraima (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ "Conselhos aprovam intervenção em Roraima, e Temer assina decreto na 2ª feira, diz Etchgoyen". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  11. ^ "History of Roraima". Roraima virtual. Retrieved 14 February 2016.[dead link]
  12. ^ "Displaced Venezuelans struggle to survive in northern Brazil - Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) | ReliefWeb". Retrieved 11 December 2022.

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