Mexico

Coordinates: 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102

United Mexican States
Estados Unidos Mexicanos  (Spanish)
Motto: 
La Patria Es Primero  (Spanish)
("The Homeland is First")
Anthem: Himno Nacional Mexicano
("Mexican National Anthem")
Location of Mexico
Capital
and largest city
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°8′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133
Official languages
Recognized regional languagesSpanish and 68 Amerindian languages[a]
National languageSpanish (de facto)[b]
Ethnic groups
56 Amerindian and diverse foreign ethnic groups
Religion
(2020)[1]
Demonym(s)Mexican
GovernmentFederal presidential
republic[2]
• President
Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Olga Sánchez Cordero
Sergio Gutiérrez Luna
Arturo Zaldívar
LegislatureCongress
Senate
Chamber of Deputies
Independence 
from Spain
• Declared
16 September 1810
27 September 1821
28 December 1836
4 October 1824
5 February 1857
5 February 1917
Area
• Total
1,972,550 km2 (761,610 sq mi) (13th)
• Water (%)
1.58 (as of 2015)[3]
Population
• 2022 estimate
129,150,971[4] (10th)
• 2020 census
126,014,024[1] (10th)
• Density
61/km2 (158.0/sq mi) (142nd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.715 trillion[5] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $21,362[5] (64th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.322 trillion[5] (15th)
• Per capita
Increase $10,405[5] (64th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 41.8[6]
medium
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.758[7]
high · 86th
CurrencyMexican peso (MXN)
Time zoneUTC−8 to −5 (See Time in Mexico)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−7 to −5 (varies)
Driving sideright
Calling code+52
ISO 3166 codeMX
Internet TLD.mx
  1. ^ Article 4 of the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples.[8][9]
  2. ^ Spanish is de facto the official language in the Mexican federal government.

Mexico,[a][b] officially the United Mexican States,[c] is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico.[11] Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi),[12] making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants,[1] it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federal republic comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital. Other major urban areas include Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.[13]

Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BCE and is identified as one of the world's six cradles of civilization. In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha. Last were the Aztecs, who dominated the region in the century before European contact. In 1521, the Spanish Empire and its indigenous allies conquered the Aztec Empire from its capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), establishing the colony of New Spain.[14] Over the next three centuries, Spain and the Catholic Church played an important role expanding the territory, enforcing Christianity and spreading the Spanish language throughout.[15] With the discovery of rich deposits of silver in Zacatecas and Guanajuato, New Spain soon became one of the most important mining centers worldwide. Wealth coming from Asia and the New World contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next centuries, and brought about a price revolution in Western Europe.[16] The colonial order came to an end in the early nineteenth century with the War of Independence against Spain.

Mexico's early history as an independent nation state was marked by political and socioeconomic upheaval, both domestically and in foreign affairs. The Federal Republic of Central America shortly seceded the country. Then two invasions by foreign powers took place: first, by the United States as a consequence of the Texas Revolt by American settlers, which led to the Mexican–American War and huge territorial losses in 1848.[17] After the introduction of liberal reforms in the Constitution of 1857, conservatives reacted with the war of Reform and prompted France to invade the country and install an Empire, against the Republican resistance led by liberal President Benito Juárez, which emerged victorious. The last decades of the 19th century were dominated by the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz, who sought to modernize Mexico and restore order.[18] However, the Porfiriato era led to great social unrest and ended with the outbreak in 1910 of the decade-long Mexican Revolution (civil war). This conflict had profound changes in Mexican society, including the proclamation of the 1917 Constitution, which remains in effect to this day. The remaining war generals ruled as a succession of presidents until the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) emerged in 1929. The PRI in turn governed Mexico for the next 70 years, first under a set of paternalistic developmental policies of considerable economic success. During World War II Mexico also played an important role for the U.S. war effort.[19][20] Nonetheless, the PRI regime resorted to repression and electoral fraud to maintain power; and moved the country to a more US-aligned neoliberal economic policy during the late 20th century. This culminated with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994, which caused a major indigenous rebellion in the state of Chiapas. PRI lost the presidency for the first time in 2000, against the conservative party (PAN).

Mexico is a developing country, ranking 74th on the Human Development Index, but has the world's 15th-largest economy by nominal GDP and the 11th-largest by PPP, with the United States being its largest economic partner. Its large economy and population, cultural influence, and steady democratization make Mexico a regional and middle power;[21][22][23][24] it is often identified as an emerging power but is considered a newly industrialized state by several analysts.[25][26][27][28][29] Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for the number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[30] It is also one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, ranking fifth in natural biodiversity.[31] Mexico's rich cultural and biological heritage, as well as varied climate and geography, makes it a major tourist destination: as of 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals.[32] However, the country continues to struggle with social inequality, poverty and extensive crime. It ranks poorly on the Global Peace Index,[33] due in large part to ongoing conflict between drug trafficking syndicates, which violently compete for the US drug market and trade routes. This "drug war" has led to over 120,000 deaths since 2006.[34] Mexico is a member of United Nations, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the Organization of American States, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, and the Organization of Ibero-American States.

  1. ^ a b c "Censo Población y Vivienda 2020". www.inegi.org.mx. INEGI. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  2. ^ "Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, title 2, article 40" (PDF). MX Q: SCJN. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  3. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  4. ^ "The World Factbook: Mexico". Central Intelligence Agency. September 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ a b c d "Mexico". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  6. ^ Inequality - Income inequality - OECD Data. OECD. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2021-2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  8. ^ INALI (13 March 2003). "General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples" (PDF). Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  9. ^ "Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas". Inali.gob.mx. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  10. ^ "México" in Diccionario panhispánico de dudas by Royal Spanish Academy and Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, Madrid: Santillana. 2005. ISBN 978-8-429-40623-8.
  11. ^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, Merriam-Webster; p. 733
  12. ^ Mexico. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  13. ^ "MEXICO: Metropolitan Areas". City Population. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  14. ^ Brading, D.A., The First America: The Spanish Monarchy, Creole Patriots, and the Liberal State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1991. ISBN 052139130X
  15. ^ Ricard, Robert, The Spiritual Conquest of Mexico, Lesley Byrd Simpson, trans. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1966
  16. ^ Fischer, David Hackett (1996). The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505377-7.
  17. ^ Greenberg, Amy S. (2013). A wicked war : Polk, Clay, Lincoln, and the 1846 U.S. invasion of Mexico. New York. ISBN 978-0-307-47599-2. OCLC 818318029.
  18. ^ Garner, Paul. Porfirio Díaz. Routledge 2001.
  19. ^ Jones, Halbert. The War has brought Peace to Mexico: World War II and the Consolidation of the Post-Revolutionary State. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press 2014.
  20. ^ Pruitt, Sarah. "The Surprising Role Mexico Played in World War II". HISTORY. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  21. ^ James Scott; Matthias vom Hau; David Hulme. "Beyond the BICs: Strategies of influence". The University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  22. ^ Nolte, Detlef (October 2010). "How to compare regional powers: analytical concepts and research topics". Review of International Studies. 36 (4): 881–901. doi:10.1017/S026021051000135X. JSTOR 40961959. S2CID 13809794. ProQuest 873500719.
  23. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan" (PDF). Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  24. ^ "Oxford Analytica". Archived from the original on 24 April 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  25. ^ "G8: Despite Differences, Mexico Comfortable as Emerging Power". ipsnews.net. 5 June 2007. Archived from the original on 16 August 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  26. ^ Paweł Bożyk (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries". Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-7546-4638-9.
  27. ^ Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits of Convergence. Princeton University Press. p. 126 (table 5.1). ISBN 978-0-691-11633-4.
  28. ^ David Waugh (2000). "Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)". Geography, An Integrated Approach (3rd ed.). Nelson Thornes. pp. 563, 576–579, 633, and 640. ISBN 978-0-17-444706-1.
  29. ^ N. Gregory Mankiw (2007). Principles of Economics (4th ed.). Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. ISBN 978-0-324-22472-6.
  30. ^ [1] UNESCO World Heritage sites, accessed 9 May 2022
  31. ^ "What is a mega-diverse country?". Mexican biodiversity. Archived from the original on 7 September 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  32. ^ "México ocupa el sexto lugar en turismo a nivel mundial". www.expansion.mx. CNN Expansión. 28 August 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  33. ^ "Global Peace Index 2019: Measuring Peace in a Complex World" (PDF). Vision of Humanity. Sydney: Institute for Economics & Peace. June 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  34. ^ Cite error: The named reference cfrdeaths was invoked but never defined (see the help page).


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