United Mexican States
Estados Unidos Mexicanos (Spanish)
Anthem: "Himno Nacional Mexicano"
("Mexican National Anthem")
and largest city
Mexico City
19°26′N 99°8′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133
Official languagesSpanish (de facto)
Co-official languages
Ethnic groups
See below
  • 17% no religion
  • 8% other religion
  • 5% prefer not to say
GovernmentFederal presidential republic[2]
• President
Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Ana Lilia Rivera
Marcela Guerra Castillo
Norma Lucía Piña Hernández
Chamber of Deputies
from Spain
16 September 1810
• Declared
27 September 1821
28 December 1836
4 October 1824
5 February 1857
5 February 1917
• Total
1,972,550 km2 (761,610 sq mi) (13th)
• Water (%)
1.58 (as of 2015)[3]
• 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 129,875,529[4] (10th)
• Density
61/km2 (158.0/sq mi) (142nd)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.434 trillion[5] (12th)
• Per capita
Increase $25,963[5] (70th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.017 trillion[5] (12th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,249[5] (63rd)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 41.8[6]
HDI (2022)Increase 0.781[7]
high (77th)
CurrencyMexican peso (MXN)
Time zoneUTC−8 to −5 (See Time in Mexico)
• Summer (DST)
UTC−7 to −5 (varies)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+52
ISO 3166 codeMX
  1. ^ Article 4 of the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples[8][9]
  2. ^ Spanish is de facto the official language in the Mexican federal government.

Mexico,[a][b] officially the United Mexican States,[c] is a country in the southern portion of North America. Covering 1,972,550 km2 (761,610 sq mi),[11] it is the world's 13th largest country by area; with a population of almost 130 million, it is the 10th most populous country and has the most Spanish speakers in the world.[12] Mexico is organized as a federal constitutional republic comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital and largest city, which is among the world's most populous metropolitan areas. The country shares land borders with the United States to the north, with Guatemala and Belize to the southeast; as well as maritime borders with the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the southeast, and the Gulf of Mexico to the east.[13]

Human presence in Pre-Columbian Mexico dates back to 8,000 BC, making it one of the world's six cradles of civilization. The Mesoamerican region hosted various intertwined civilizations, including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha. The Aztecs came to dominate the area prior to European contact. In 1521, the Spanish Empire, alongside indigenous allies, conquered the Aztec Empire, establishing the colony of New Spain centered in the former capital, Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City).[14] Over the next three centuries, Spain expanded its territorial control, enforced Christianity, and spread the Spanish language, with the colony's rich silver deposits fueling its empire.[15] The colonial era ended in the early 19th century with the Mexican War of Independence.

Following independence, Mexico faced political and socioeconomic upheaval. The United States' invasion during the Mexican–American War resulted in significant territorial losses in 1848.[16] Liberal reforms introduced in the Constitution of 1857 prompted domestic conflict, French intervention, and the establishment of an Empire, countered by the Republican resistance led by Benito Juárez. The late 19th century saw the rise of Porfirio Díaz's dictatorship,[17] sparking the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which led to profound changes, including the 1917 Constitution. A succession of presidents, often former generals, persisted until the emergence of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in 1929. Over the next 70 years of PRI rule, Mexico experienced significant economic growth, but also faced issues of repression and electoral fraud. The late twentieth century saw a shift towards neoliberal policies, exemplified by the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994, amidst social unrest and indigenous rebellion in Chiapas. In 2000, the PRI lost the presidency for the first time to the conservative National Action Party (PAN).

Mexico is newly industrialized and developing country,[18] with the world's 15th-largest economy by nominal GDP and 11th-largest by PPP; the United States is its largest economic partner. Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world by the number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[19] It is also one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries, ranking fifth in natural biodiversity.[20] Mexico's rich cultural and biological heritage, as well as varied climate and geography, makes it a major tourist destination: as of 2022, it is the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 42.2 million international arrivals.[21] Mexico's large economy and population, global cultural influence (particularly in cuisine, media, and art), and steady democratization make it a regional and middle power,[22][23][24] and it is increasingly identified as an emerging power by several analysts.[25][26][27][28]

Although Mexico has made significant political and socioeconomic gains in recent decades, ranking 77th in the Human Development Index, it continues to struggle with social inequality, poverty, systemic corruption, and extensive crime. [29] Since 2006, an ongoing conflict between drug trafficking syndicates has led to over 120,000 deaths.[30] Mexico is a member of United Nations, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the Organization of American States, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, and the Organization of Ibero-American States.

  1. ^ "Global Religion - Religious Beliefs Across the World" (PDF). Ipsos. May 2023. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2023.
  2. ^ "Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, title 2, article 40" (PDF). MX Q: SCJN. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  3. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Mexico". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 June 2023.
  5. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2024 Edition. (Mexico)". International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 16 April 2024.
  6. ^ Inequality - Income inequality - OECD Data. OECD. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  7. ^ "Human Development Report 2023/24" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 13 March 2024. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2024. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  8. ^ INALI (13 March 2003). "General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  9. ^ "Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas". Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  10. ^ México in Diccionario panhispánico de dudas by Royal Spanish Academy and Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, Madrid: Santillana. 2005. ISBN 978-8-429-40623-8.
  11. ^ "Mexico". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021.
  12. ^ "Censo Población y Vivienda 2020". INEGI. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  13. ^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, Merriam-Webster; p. 733
  14. ^ Brading, D.A., The First America: The Spanish Monarchy, Creole Patriots, and the Liberal State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1991. ISBN 052139130X
  15. ^ Ricard, Robert, The Spiritual Conquest of Mexico, Lesley Byrd Simpson, trans. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1966
  16. ^ Greenberg, Amy S. (2013). A wicked war : Polk, Clay, Lincoln, and the 1846 U.S. invasion of Mexico. New York. ISBN 978-0-307-47599-2. OCLC 818318029. Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 5 March 2022.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  17. ^ Garner, Paul. Porfirio Díaz. Routledge 2001.
  18. ^ Paweł Bożyk (2006). "Newly Industrialized Countries". Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-7546-4638-9. Archived from the original on 4 November 2023. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  19. ^ [1] Archived 4 February 2024 at the Wayback Machine UNESCO World Heritage sites, accessed 9 May 2022
  20. ^ "What is a mega-diverse country?". Mexican biodiversity. Archived from the original on 7 September 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  21. ^ "México ocupa el sexto lugar en turismo a nivel mundial". CNN Expansión. 28 August 2018. Archived from the original on 23 December 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  22. ^ James Scott; Matthias vom Hau; David Hulme. "Beyond the BICs: Strategies of influence". The University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  23. ^ Nolte, Detlef (October 2010). "How to compare regional powers: analytical concepts and research topics". Review of International Studies. 36 (4): 881–901. doi:10.1017/S026021051000135X. JSTOR 40961959. S2CID 13809794. ProQuest 873500719. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  24. ^ "Oxford Analytica". Archived from the original on 24 April 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  25. ^ "G8: Despite Differences, Mexico Comfortable as Emerging Power". 5 June 2007. Archived from the original on 16 August 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  26. ^ Mauro F. Guillén (2003). "Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor". The Limits of Convergence. Princeton University Press. p. 126 (table 5.1). ISBN 978-0-691-11633-4. Archived from the original on 21 February 2024. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  27. ^ David Waugh (2000). "Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)". Geography, An Integrated Approach (3rd ed.). Nelson Thornes. pp. 563, 576–579, 633, and 640. ISBN 978-0-17-444706-1. Archived from the original on 4 February 2024. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  28. ^ N. Gregory Mankiw (2007). Principles of Economics (4th ed.). Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. ISBN 978-0-324-22472-6. Archived from the original on 4 February 2024. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  29. ^ "Global Peace Index 2019: Measuring Peace in a Complex World" (PDF). Vision of Humanity. Sydney: Institute for Economics & Peace. June 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  30. ^ Cite error: The named reference cfrdeaths was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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